Google在审查问题上向中国政府低头

在去年12月5日~8日中,Google作出了一个令人吃惊,却还未被报道的决定。他们决定取消通知中国用户搜索时所含有的敏感词。(截图见下)。他们还删除了如何使用此功能的帮助文档。这表示中国政府和Google之间的关系有了进一步的变化。因为Google在2010年决定将中国大陆的搜索引擎迁移到香港以后,对Google服务,比如Youtube,Google+和上千个敏感词的审查都由GFW来完成,不在Google的控制范围之内。但这个最新的决定完全是由Google决定的,这个决定只能被描述为自我审查。


Google一直被描述为不向中国政府屈服,坚持“不做恶”信条的模范公司。 这个印象在5月Google为中国用户推出敏感词通知功能时到达了顶峰。输入被GFW封锁的上千个敏感词中的一个,这个信息就会告诉用户继续搜索可能会导致用户连接被中断。这是一个大胆的暴露审查人员想隐藏信息的举措。与此同时,外交政策问到“搜索巨人与中国政府的第二次大战,言论自由会胜利么?”

在Google推出此功能24小时内,GFW就反击,将提供此功能的JS脚本给屏蔽了(见事件时间线)。Google不甘落后,改变了JS脚本的URL地址,却又遭屏蔽。这个猫捉老鼠的游戏在Google聪明地把此脚本内嵌在主页HTML里面。这样,在技术上没有可能只屏蔽此功能,却不把整个Google给屏蔽了。

这是一个反抗审查的极大胜利。不幸的是,这胜利不长。根据我们的测试数据,Google在12月5日~8日,把专为中国用户研发的内嵌在主页里的敏感词提示功能取消了。他们为什么这么做呢?
 
一个理论是专门为中国用户研发的功能让Google的主页变得难以维护。一个系统越复杂,越难以维护和开发。但是,这个功能显然是很有价值的。以Google员工的智力,他们肯定能找到一个技术上可行的解决方案。虽然Google在中国的市场占有率只有大约5%, 但这也有2500万网民。
 
让这个理论不成立的很大一个证据是Google也删除了关于此功能的帮助文章。关闭此功能可能是因为技术问题,但删除帮助文章来假装此功能重来没存在过可不是技术问题能解释的了。这个帮助文章本来能在 http://www.google.com/support/websearch/bin/answer.py?answer=2477913 这里找到,但是现在访问此连接会出现一个“网页不可用”的错误。我们的测试数据显示此文档在12月5日还存在,却在12月8日被删除了。这和敏感词提示功能被取消是在同一个时段。这是原先帮助文章的截图:
 
 

是什么原因让Google关闭智能的反审查功能并同时删除帮助文档的呢?半年前费力建立这个功能的开发者一定尖叫着反抗了。因为删除帮助文档只有Google自己才能办到,唯一的原因就是Google和中国政府达成协议,在巨大的压力下屈服,进行了自我审查。

中国政府怎么让这么正值的一个公司屈服的呢?很可能,在11月9日的对Google的完全屏蔽是一部分压力。这个屏蔽在24小时之内就被取消了,看起来非常的奇怪。当时,我们认为着可能是政府在测试“一键封锁Google”。现在看起来,短暂的完全屏蔽是给Google施加压力非常可能。这可能是政府对Google展示自己的力量,并在和Google协商时成为一个可观的砝码。

在今年11月,对GMail进行的部分屏蔽和限速也显著增加。最终,Google可能决定提供一个被限制的Google搜索,和一个缓慢但是可用的Gmail比被中国完全屏蔽要好。

这是在与审查的战争中的一场重大挫败。Google站在了错误的位置。这表示Google作为反审查斗士可能名不副实。但是,这并不是说其他公司更好。(这里是关于微软苹果雅虎)。 Gmail可能仍然是异见人士最好的Email服务商,因为其提供https,两步验证,并且对可疑活动以及国家资助的攻击者攻击进行警告。我们感激Google尝试不屈服于政府,虽然现在看来它必须低头了。

展望未来,一个弱化的Google表示它不会继续探索中国网络审查的底线。比如说,它不会把所有来自中国的流量重定向到https,虽然这样做会使所有被屏蔽的关键字都被解封。

我们希望Google能为我们和几千万中国用户提供一个解释。但是,我们从Google在中国区的透明度报道中的:

中国官方将审查要求视为国家机密,因此我们无法披露在从 2009 年 7 月到 2010 年 6 月的两个报告期间与内容删除要求相关的任何信息。

我们能推测,Google不太可能提供解释。

更新:根据卫报,“Google发言人证实了在12月这个功能被取消,但因为事件在中国的敏感性拒绝对此进行评论” “在中国的一个线人表示Google虽然尝试了许多方法来规避审查但最终决定继续在技术上斗争只会起反作用,”

事件事件线

日期事件引用
5月 31日

Google推出一个新功能,通知中国用户搜索中的敏感词。Google发布了关于此功能的博文,帮助文档和Youtube视频。

https://zh.greatfire.org/blog/2012/jun/greatfire-may-google-and-sina-adapt-great-firewall-strikes-back

http://insidesearch.blogspot.com/2012/05/better-search-in-mainland-china.html
5月 31日GFW 屏蔽了包含敏感词功能和数据的JS脚本,从而屏蔽了此功能。https://zh.greatfire.org/https/bit.ly/KhDUnK
6月2日

Google改变了js脚本的URL地址,从而重新启用了此功能。

https://twitter.com/GreatFireChina/status/208855394280423424*
6月2日 - 18日GFW 又屏蔽了新的URL地址.http://ow.ly/bjBwE*
6月底前

Google将此反审查功能内嵌到主页内,使其不可能被选择性屏蔽。

https://zh.greatfire.org/blog/2012/jul/greatfire-june-bloomberg-blocked-well-hundreds-additional-keywords-weibo
11月6日

对Gmail的部分屏蔽加剧。

https://zh.greatfire.org/https/mail.google.com/mail
11月9日所有google.com和google.com.hk在中国被屏蔽。https://zh.greatfire.org/blog/2012/nov/googlecom-blocked-china
11月10日Google 被解封。https://zh.greatfire.org/blog/2012/nov/google-unblocked-again-was-it-mistake-or-test
12月5日 - 8日Google 停止在主页上内嵌反审查功能。根据 我们的数据库,最后测试到有内嵌功能使12月5日. 最先没有测试到内嵌功能使12月8日
12月5日 - 8日

Google 删除了帮助文档

12月5日 (帮助文档存在).
12月8日 (帮助文档被删除). 

*因为URL的实际地址太长,我们的测试系统会自动截断来测试。这解释了在美国测试点返回404错误,但这个截断的URL地址仍然在中国被封锁。

 

链接

  1. 外链的JS脚本,脚本里有加密储存的关键字数据 (这个脚本后来被内嵌到中国用户的Google主页上): http://www.google.com/xjs/_/js/s/s,st,anim,bbd,c,sb_cn,hv,wta,cr,cdos,sk....
  2. Google官方关于反审查功能的博文:
    1. http://insidesearch.blogspot.com/2012/05/better-search-in-mainland-china... (英文)
    2. http://services.google.com/fh/files/blogs/google_chinasearchchinese.pdf (中文)
  3. YouTube视屏,谷歌搜索中国大陆之体验:
    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u2GHyVPoVms (英文)
    2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vFAHKav2JZM (中文)

评论

更多博客文章

订阅 email
显示 博客 | Google+ | Twitter | 全部 的消息. 使用 RSS 订阅我们的博客。

星期一, 6月 10, 2019

苹果审查中国西藏的信息

苹果在涉及西藏的审查方面有着悠久历史。 2009年,据计算机世界网透露 ,与达赖喇嘛有关的几个应用程序在苹果的中国区应用商店中不存在。这些应用的开发者未收到他们的应用被删除的通知。当面对这些审查制度时,苹果发言人只是说该公司将“继续遵守当地法律”。

2017年12月,在中国的一次会议上,当被问及与中国当局合作审查苹果应用商店时,蒂姆·库克 宣称

“所以你的选择是参与进去,还是站在局外,吼叫着事情应当怎样?我自己的看法非常强烈,你得进入赛场,因为没有任何东西会从局外发生改变。"

自苹果公司首次因与中国当局合作以遏制已被边缘化的声音而被批评的十年间,情况发生了什么变化?苹果继续严格遵守中国当局的审查令。蒂姆库克什么时候会期望他的公司能帮助在中国带来积极的变化?

根据生成的数据 https://applecensorship.com,Apple现在已经审查了在中国应用商店中29个西藏的热门应用程序。关于新闻,宗教研究,旅游甚至游戏的西藏主题应用程序正在被苹果审查。最下方附有完整的审查应用列表。

“苹果的领导力隐藏在他们审查应用程序以遵守模糊的'中国当地法律'的借口,但他们的行为缺乏任何透明度。通过从中国苹果应用商店删除藏文和其他许多应用程序,苹果阻碍了藏人获取信息和自由表达自己的能力,这是国际法下的一项基本人权。“ TibCERT(西藏计算机应急准备小组)的响应协调员Dorjee Phuntsok说道。 他们与GreatFire合作对被屏蔽的应用程序进行了分析。

   2019年1月,GreatFire推出了applecensorship.com。在那时,GreatFire联合创始人马丁约翰逊指出:“苹果公司在其透明度报告中没有分享有关应用商店审查的信息 - 该项目强制透明度。蒂姆库克可以随心所欲地说苹果在中国做了或没有做什么,但 applecensorship.com 提供了可以实际看到苹果实施审查原始数据的途径。

分析苹果在中国审查的iOS应用程序

有许多应用程序由藏人或为藏人制作,苹果正在审查中国区应用商店中的许多应用程序。了解某些应用程序被阻止的方式和原因以及这些决策背后的基本原理非常重要。为了解这一点,TibCERT(西藏应急准备小组)对在中国应用商店中被审查的藏文应用程序进行了分析。该研究使用关键字搜索藏文应用程序,然后使用GreatFire提供的应用程序审查平台。

TibCERT分析了119个以藏语为主题的iOS应用程序。使用“西藏”,“藏人”,“达赖喇嘛”,“佛教”,“藏传佛教”,等关键词搜索苹果应用商店时,可以找到下面列出的应用程序。这些应用程序分为五大类:“宗教或文化”,“媒体/政治”,“娱乐”,“工具”和“教育”。

星期四, 6月 06, 2019

重点关注苹果在中国审查实践的报告

最新的 数字版权企业责任指数排名 就公司和政府需要做些什么来提出建议,以改善全球互联网用户的人权保护。数字版权排名(RDR)旨在通过为公司尊重和保护用户权利制定全球标准和激励措施,以促进互联网上的言论自由和隐私权。

在他们的2019年责任指数中,RDR着眼于24家世界上最重要的互联网公司在言论自由和隐私方面的政策,并强调了那些尚需努力和已经取得改进的公司。 RDR指出:

透明度不足使私人政党,政府和公司本身更容易通过网络言论滥用权力,并规避责任。

特别是,该报告强调了苹果如何滥用其网络言论的权力,并在中国指出这一点。根据该报告,苹果公司在面对政府当局提出的要求时,并未披露其从App Store中删除内容的数据。

虽然[苹果]披露了有关政府限制帐户请求的数据,但它没有披露有关内容删除请求的数据,例如从苹果应用商店删除应用程序的请求。苹果公司对其影响言论自由的政策和做法讳莫如深,这让它的排名低于此类别的所有其他美国公司。

该报告为政府提出了明智而感性的建议。然而,这些建议还强调了与中国政府进行这些讨论是多么的困难。

RDR 建议政府要求公司的透明度并保持透明度。中国当局采取相反的做法 - 他们不希望在这些问题上保持透明度,因为它突显了他们不希望公众了解的信息。当局不希望公司透明,他们可能直接指示Apple不发布他们正删除的内容列表。

苹果可能真的认为他们必须遵守中国的法律条文。或者他们也可能愿意分享有关App Store中被审查内容的信息,但有碍于被中国当局束手束脚。苹果还可能会利用这种情况作为他们打击中国言论自由的掩护。无论Apple的真实动机如何,透明度都能够并已经被强加给他们。

在2019年1月,GreatFire发布了 applecensorship.com。该项目监控Apple在公司运营的每个市场中对App Store的审查。应用程序的可用性测试由网站访问者进行。截至今天,用户生成的测试已经确定了 超过1100个 在中国应用商店中不可用的应用。在中国受审查的应用程序包括那些涉及宗教,新闻,隐私和翻墙的应用程序。通过审查有助于规避审查限制的应用程序,苹果确实的让中国人无法自由访问信息。苹果的中国用户或许认为他们买到的是一流的设备 - 但可以肯定的是,该公司将他们视为二等信息公民。

RDR建议苹果对言论自由的限制保持透明,并公布有关公司因政府要求而删除内容所采取行动的数据。我们邀苹果审核我们在 applecensorship.com 上公开发布的数据,并根据中国当局的指示突出显示已删除应用的情况。

星期四, 11月 30, 2017

关于在中国苹果商店被审查的那674个软件

苹果对中国区的审查行为敞开了大门 - 但这似乎只是冰山一角。

星期二, 5月 23, 2017

Is China establishing cyber sovereignty in the United States?

Last week Twitter came under attack from a DDoS attack orchestrated by the Chinese authorities. While such attacks are not uncommon for websites like Twitter, this one proved unusual. While the Chinese authorities use the Great Firewall to block harmful content from reaching its citizens, it now uses DDoS attacks to take down content that appears on websites beyond its borders. For the Chinese authorities, it is not simply good enough to “protect” the interests of Chinese citizens at home - in their view of cyber sovereignty, any content that might harm China’s interests must be removed, regardless of where the website is located.

And so last week the Chinese authorities determined that Twitter was the target. In particular, the authorities targeted the Twitter account for Guo Wengui (https://twitter.com/KwokMiles), the rebel billionaire who is slowly leaking information about corrupt Chinese government officials via his Twitter account and through his YouTube videos. Guo appeared to ramp up his whistle-blowing efforts last week and the Chinese authorities, in turn, ramped up theirs.

via https://twitter.com/KwokMiles/status/863689935798374401

星期一, 12月 12, 2016

China is the obstacle to Google’s plan to end internet censorship

It’s been three years since Eric Schmidt proclaimed that Google would chart a course to ending online censorship within ten years. Now is a great time to check on Google’s progress, reassess the landscape, benchmark Google’s efforts against others who share the same goal, postulate on the China strategy and offer suggestions on how they might effectively move forward.

flowers on google china plaque

Flowers left outside Google China’s headquarters after its announcement it might leave the country in 2010. Photo: Wikicommons.

What has Google accomplished since November 2013?

The first thing they have accomplished is an entire rebranding of both Google (now Alphabet) and Google Ideas (now Jigsaw). Throughout this blog post, reference is made to both new and old company names.

Google has started to develop two main tools which they believe can help in the fight against censorship. Jigsaw’s DDoS protection service, Project Shield, is effectively preventing censorship-inspired DDoS attacks and recently helped to repel an attack on Brian Krebs’ blog. The service is similar to other anti-DDoS services developed by internet freedom champions and for-profit services like Cloudflare.

使用 RSS 订阅我们的博客。

评论

Good web site you hav got here.. It's difficult to find excellent writing like yours nowadays.
I seriously appreciate people like you! Take care!!

Take a look at my site - wildlife artists cape town

It is highly recommended to work with those services
as they insure that most of the movers are certified and insured.
This factor makes them reliable and trusted by the clients very much.
Or, you can connect stereo devices, either speakers or headsets, to your i
- Phone and listen to music and videos without the need to plug in headphones.

Look into my web blog - รถรับจ้างขนของ

The yummy fresh chocolates on valentine day are most special gift.
However the quality was often quite poor and some sold for as little as a shilling.
With Valentine's Day rapidly approaching, on
February 14th, many are wondering what to do for that special someone.

my blog post :: valentine day sms

After Daytona Beach Police Detectives finished their investigation of the
incident, the scene was turned over to a site manager for Clean Fuels National, who police emphasized
was not at the scene when the incident happened. It has emerged as one of
the best weekend destinations especially for families.
"Backwater tours for four hours, six hours or eight hours can be arranged for two or more anglers.

my web blog; daytona 500 live streaming

this post is awesome, great msg for us, plz update ur blog for daily basis, i am regular visitor of this site, so keep posting for us,

click the below links to create backlink
best free backlink website
click here for msg movie

thanks for this post, keep it up for updating us, i am waiting for ur new article.
IPL 2015 Cricket live score
mps computers
Harjinder Singh

thanks again

Α number of people, particulaгly the Indians are really too thrilled,
elated and well over satisfied with the fact that almost all of the worlԀ
cup ϲricket 2011 fits shall be held in the Ιndian sub-continent.

Fanatics haƿpen to be in dream to get hold of announcement regarding the ongoing complement by
way of juѕt ɑbout ɑny dish network cricket woгld cup reference on the
market. The Engliѕh team will miss the services of
their batsman Keѵin Pietersen and faѕt bowler Stuaгt Broad throughout the tournament.

Look at my webpaǥe ipl 8 live streaming

Antara Sagi Hyderabad Escorts offers discreet and professional companionship services while you stay in Hyderabad We provide High Class Hyderabad Escort Services offer sensual massage by attractive, well-mannered and friendly girls from Indian and around the world. Experience our full range of escort services . We are proud of our hospitality and reliable Hyderabad escort services. http://www.antarasagi.com/

Are you looking for the delightful escort services of Hyderabad Girls? Ankita Lal Hyderabad Escorts is an escort agency specializing in female escorts. http://www.ankitalal.com/
http://www.ankitalal.com/blog.html

I really appreciate your site becoz it has so pretty and informative content that every one will like it.
I think it is really great. Also have a look on my blog at
http://www.shreehanumanchalisa.in/
http://www.printablecalendar2015x.com/

One of the most famous festival across the world called Happy New Year. Happy New Year 2016 coming soon and celebrated on 1st January,2016 so be ready to enjoy this new year. Visit our website http://happynewyearssms2016.in
http://happynewyearr2016.in
http://happynewyears2016.co.in

http://www.bollywooddhamaal.website

Bollywood News, Bollywood Gossips, Indian Actress and Actresses are the best place to know about Indian entertainers who can just reach all bollywood quality.

Bollywood News, Bolloywood Gossips, Indian Actress, Indian Actresses, Bollywood Heros, Bollywood Heroiens

http://www.bollywooddhamaal.website

Bollywood News, Bollywood Gossips, Indian Actress and Actresses are the best place to know about Indian entertainers who can just reach all bollywood quality.

Bollywood News, Bolloywood Gossips, Indian Actress, Indian Actresses, Bollywood Heros, Bollywood Heroiens

Independent Escort in Delhi for absolute physical and mental satisfaction. You will get me and hotel together at best price.
http://kirtiverma.com/
http://kally.in/
http://kinal.in/

How an Delhi Escorts Can Change the Way of Your Life?
Do you yearning to encounter the qualities of existence with an Delhi Escort? If yes, and then persuade prepared to be transported to a mysterious spot of immaculate amusement.
Women, Love, Delhi Escorts, Relationship

http://modelgallery.in
http://www.classykajol.com
http://www.roshnirao.in

Bollywood News
http://www.bollywooddhamaal.website

Bollywood News, Bollywood Gossips, Indian Actress and Actresses are the best place to know about Indian entertainers who can just reach all bollywood quality. 1

Bollywood News, Bolloywood Gossips, Indian Actress, Indian Actresses, Bollywood Heros, Bollywood Heroiens

Bollywood News
http://www.bollywooddhamaal.website

Bollywood News, Bollywood Gossips, Indian Actress and Actresses are the best place to know about Indian entertainers who can just reach all bollywood quality.

Bollywood News, Bolloywood Gossips, Indian Actress, Indian Actresses, Bollywood Heros, Bollywood Heroiens 12

http://www.anushka-velvet.in/

Oh my gosh you feel you have got a right Call Girls when you are in Goa. Then Rethink it buddies you have come to best Goa Call Girls 08585025915.

Goa Call Girls, Goa Escorts, Goa Female Escorts, Escorts In Goa, Goa Escort Services, Goa HIFI Escorts, Goa Celebrity Escorts

Hi I am pia panday naughty escorts in Mumbai offering independent escorts service in Mumbai that can change your whole night and convert it to in romantic night.
http://www.piapandey.com/

Call fun in Mumbai with independent Mumbai escorts sofya extensive and highly demanded escorts service in Mumbai of Sofya.
http://sofya.in/

Relax guys Alisha Jain a good experienced Independent Mumbai Escorts girl, always ready for your naughty and sexual satisfaction.
http://www.alishajain.co.in/

Priya Sen and Mansi Kher Sweetheart are best of friends and simply adore
putting on a show for you guys who are into girl on girl fantasy!!
Alternatively if you want to book 2 girls together in hotel room,
Priya Sen and Mansi Kher fit the bill very nicely. Just look at
these two and see how great they are together. Priya Sen and
Mansi Kher are looking forward to duo bookings Female Service in Mumbai. -

http://mansikher.in/
http://priyasen.in/

Hi I am Rossie Roy naughty escorts in Mumbai offering independent escorts service in Chandigarh that can change your whole night and convert it to in romantic night.
http://rossie.in/
http://preetarora.in/
http://angelsnight.in/

Hyderabad Escorts Girls gathering is putting forth you a long haul period gathered gathering of excellent youngsters with warmth young ladies. Give your arrangement without waist this brilliant time. This is the most reason the celebrated of our own.

http://www.hyderabadcallgirls.in/

Hello friends and greeting to Kolkata Escorts Agency we grant top class escorts service by our high profile escorts girls so don’t wait and try to take full benefit of Kolkata Escorts Agency

Hello friends and welcoming to Kolkata Escorts Agency we grant top class escorts service by our high profile escorts girls so don’t wait and try to take fulladvantageof Kolkata Escorts Agency

http://achalverma.org/

Our escorts girls have two most personally valued qualities that these girls exudes are elegance and integrity. These girls impressed you by their positive look on life, and warm heart.

http://callgirlsjalandhar.in/

Hi friends we balmy welcome you to Kolkata Escorts Agency we provide highest class escorts service by our high profile escorts girls so don’t wait and try to take full advantage of Kolkata Escorts Agency.

"Hiya !!! ... I am Sonam Raees , adorable and young lady, as individuals depict me in their fantasies.
http://www.sonam-raees.in

My site is just for the general population above 18 year old on the off chance that you are underneath 18 then i would ask for you to stop the website page at this moment as beneath security and fulfillment arrangements are for just above 18 years.

http://www.sonam-raees.in

"""Hiya !!! ... I am Sonam Raees A Hot, adorable and hot young lady, as individuals depict me in their fantasies.
http://www.rentatoy.in/

Escorts Service in Mahipalpur is our top high profile service to gave the sweetness enjoyment, Fulfill our desire with our Mahipalpur Escorts 8376096323.
To More Information visit us: http://angelmahipalpur.com/

Hello friends and welcoming to Kolkata Escorts Agency we grant top class escorts service by our high profile escorts girls so don’t wait and try to take fulladvantageof Kolkata Escorts Agency http://roomcantik.com/alat-pembesar-payudara

My postures and moves are very erotic and full of adventurous activities. I believe in foreplay and I know you too. It will increase the level of satisfaction http://24callgirls.com/

Please my website performance: http://www.majidakhan.com/

There are many online applications are offered in the marketplace mobdroapptv.com However there is no such trouble in Mobdro. Mobdro Apk supports

Please, develop a strong and one-of-a-kind password when registering liteblue login page LiteBlue and also you could definitely count on this approach to function.

添加新评论

Filtered HTML

  • 自动将网址与电子邮件地址转变为链接。
  • 允许的HTML标签:<a> <em> <strong> <cite> <blockquote> <code> <ul> <ol> <li> <dl> <dt> <dd>
  • 自动断行和分段。

Plain text

  • 不允许HTML标记。
  • 自动将网址与电子邮件地址转变为链接。
  • 自动断行和分段。
By submitting this form, you accept the Mollom privacy policy.