The Real Reasons Behind Google's China Censorship Kowtow

On January 4 we broke the story about Google backing down on their online censorship position in China. Sometime between December 5 and December 8 last year, Google decided to remove a feature which had previously informed users from China of censored keywords. At the same time, they deleted the help article which explained how to use the feature, indicating a new development in the relationship between the Chinese government and Google.

Our original article warrants further elaboration and analysis and we also felt it necessary to address some issues raised by the media who reported on this story.

Is this about making Google shareholders happy?

Is this just another China growth story? This could be the simplest answer as to why Google would make such a change and it would have been hastened by the Chinese government’s decision to block Google for one day last November.

Despite reports otherwise, Google still maintains offices in China and still does business here. Google is selling advertising to clients in China despite the fact that a small percentage of Chinese use Google for search. But that small percentage translates to a higher number of internet users because of the total size of China’s online population (over 500 million). This equates to perhaps over USD 1b in revenue on an annual basis (based on 2010 numbers) - not bad for a service that has faced significant hurdles. This is comparable to revenue generated by markets like Canada which see total annual revenues around US 2b. Google has global clients that also advertise in China and need to be served and Chinese companies who want to market themselves globally. If Google search is closed down and Adwords are not being delivered, it surely creates some unhappy customers.

The company also can claim many business customers who use Gmail to power their corporate email. Any interruption in service makes for a host of uneasy CEOs and CTOs who are worried that essential communication infrastructure could collapse.

Risking harming relations with major global clients because of China hiccups would also mean risking a huge chunk of revenue tied into global accounts. Clients would prefer to have a global integrated solution but that means nothing when nobody can or is accessing your site.

But most importantly, even though Google holds a small market share in China, this still generates substantial revenue for the company. This additional revenue surely makes shareholders who are looking for new Google growth stories happy. So Google felt it necessary to placate shareholders even if it meant that they would have to bow down to Chinese government censors. Of course, they are not the first foreign company to do China’s bidding in order to gain market access and they won’t be the last. If there was a scale of magnitude for measuring Google’s actions against other foreign company capitulations in China they’d be at the lower end. After all, Yahoo shared the private emails from well-known dissidents with the authorities in order to gain further access to the China market. In the end, Yahoo’s internet moves in China resulted in a fire sale while several dissidents went to prison.

Is this about providing a better user experience?

Wired have argued that Google have made the decision to improve the user experience. We’d vehemently disagree with that notion and believe in the contrary. By letting users know that the search they are about to conduct is going to be censored, Google actually improved the user experience and provided an out for users before they would receive error messages. This also helped to condition Chinese internet users as to what they should and should not be searching for which arguably also played into the hands of the Chinese censors lest they be subject to a 60 second connection reset. Surely this is a better solution than the one provided by sites like Sina Weibo who experimented with delivering a “0” result when users search for a blocked term. Do Sina Weibo users really believe that there are no search results for the President of the country as had happened earlier last year?

With Google backing down, does this mean that China will be successful at controlling information?

If Google stops pushing, or pushes less, it does make it easier for the authorities to control the Internet because one big public voice of opposition is taken out of the game.

Gmail, however, is still a problem for the censors because it continues to provide an encrypted mail service. The Chinese government strategy of slowing Gmail down in an effort to pressure users to switch to other, unencrypted email providers is likely not working so it would not be surprising if China puts even more pressure on Google and Gmail by slowing the service down further or implementing occasional blocks (like it has in the past). It is doubtful a tit-for-tat agreement has been made between the Chinese government and Google on this matter and even if the Chinese government made some sort of agreement not to block Gmail this would likely only be a short-term promise until another issue (or Party Congress or high level corruption case, etc.) arises in the future and changes the rules of the game.

Many well-financed foreign and domestic entities are also working around the clock to develop new circumvention tools. You need only witness the cat and mouse game being played between VPN providers and the Chinese authorities. No sooner is one channel blocked than another is opened. The VPN providers are winning this battle with some minor inconveniences along the way, but it is unlikely that China will ever succeed at fully shutting down circumvention tools.

But Google’s quiet exit from the censorship game in China could herald the arrival of a much more powerful and important voice of opposition – China’s netizens and domestic media organizations. Our breaking of the Google story generated decent media exposure in foreign press but nothing compared to the outcry that occurred over censorship at Southern Weekend only two days later. Supporters of the media publication were vocal on social media and when their messages started to get deleted then sent more messages, generating their own levels of encryption by writing cryptic poetic prose which would evade any straightforward keyword block yet still carry a painstakingly obvious message.

China has a long history of not instituting change when foreign powers have insisted that change is necessary. No country likes to be told what to do and China is no exception. With Google out of the picture and no obvious foreign successor to the anti-censorship throne, the title is now open for a Chinese heir and it would make sense that an influential media organization like Southern Weekend would move into this territory. And whatever the result of the standoff, these two incidents could very well spell the beginning of the end for online censorship in China. An endless stream of China experts have long predicted that social instability is a major political risk for the Chinese government. But when this train gets moving, fueled by social media, it will be hard to stop. Other Southern Weekends will take up the anti-censorship throne and if they are defeated yet others will move into their places. When all daring Chinese media organizations have been silenced in China, individual voices will start to rise and once that happens (and it could be argued that it already is with the Southern Weekend incident) there will be only two options left for the Chinese government: flip the off switch on mobile and internet communications or let the escaped animal roam free.

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星期一, 6月 10, 2019

苹果审查中国西藏的信息

苹果在涉及西藏的审查方面有着悠久历史。 2009年,据计算机世界网透露 ,与达赖喇嘛有关的几个应用程序在苹果的中国区应用商店中不存在。这些应用的开发者未收到他们的应用被删除的通知。当面对这些审查制度时,苹果发言人只是说该公司将“继续遵守当地法律”。

2017年12月,在中国的一次会议上,当被问及与中国当局合作审查苹果应用商店时,蒂姆·库克 宣称

“所以你的选择是参与进去,还是站在局外,吼叫着事情应当怎样?我自己的看法非常强烈,你得进入赛场,因为没有任何东西会从局外发生改变。"

自苹果公司首次因与中国当局合作以遏制已被边缘化的声音而被批评的十年间,情况发生了什么变化?苹果继续严格遵守中国当局的审查令。蒂姆库克什么时候会期望他的公司能帮助在中国带来积极的变化?

根据生成的数据 https://applecensorship.com,Apple现在已经审查了在中国应用商店中29个西藏的热门应用程序。关于新闻,宗教研究,旅游甚至游戏的西藏主题应用程序正在被苹果审查。最下方附有完整的审查应用列表。

“苹果的领导力隐藏在他们审查应用程序以遵守模糊的'中国当地法律'的借口,但他们的行为缺乏任何透明度。通过从中国苹果应用商店删除藏文和其他许多应用程序,苹果阻碍了藏人获取信息和自由表达自己的能力,这是国际法下的一项基本人权。“ TibCERT(西藏计算机应急准备小组)的响应协调员Dorjee Phuntsok说道。 他们与GreatFire合作对被屏蔽的应用程序进行了分析。

   2019年1月,GreatFire推出了applecensorship.com。在那时,GreatFire联合创始人马丁约翰逊指出:“苹果公司在其透明度报告中没有分享有关应用商店审查的信息 - 该项目强制透明度。蒂姆库克可以随心所欲地说苹果在中国做了或没有做什么,但 applecensorship.com 提供了可以实际看到苹果实施审查原始数据的途径。

分析苹果在中国审查的iOS应用程序

有许多应用程序由藏人或为藏人制作,苹果正在审查中国区应用商店中的许多应用程序。了解某些应用程序被阻止的方式和原因以及这些决策背后的基本原理非常重要。为了解这一点,TibCERT(西藏应急准备小组)对在中国应用商店中被审查的藏文应用程序进行了分析。该研究使用关键字搜索藏文应用程序,然后使用GreatFire提供的应用程序审查平台。

TibCERT分析了119个以藏语为主题的iOS应用程序。使用“西藏”,“藏人”,“达赖喇嘛”,“佛教”,“藏传佛教”,等关键词搜索苹果应用商店时,可以找到下面列出的应用程序。这些应用程序分为五大类:“宗教或文化”,“媒体/政治”,“娱乐”,“工具”和“教育”。

星期四, 6月 06, 2019

重点关注苹果在中国审查实践的报告

最新的 数字版权企业责任指数排名 就公司和政府需要做些什么来提出建议,以改善全球互联网用户的人权保护。数字版权排名(RDR)旨在通过为公司尊重和保护用户权利制定全球标准和激励措施,以促进互联网上的言论自由和隐私权。

在他们的2019年责任指数中,RDR着眼于24家世界上最重要的互联网公司在言论自由和隐私方面的政策,并强调了那些尚需努力和已经取得改进的公司。 RDR指出:

透明度不足使私人政党,政府和公司本身更容易通过网络言论滥用权力,并规避责任。

特别是,该报告强调了苹果如何滥用其网络言论的权力,并在中国指出这一点。根据该报告,苹果公司在面对政府当局提出的要求时,并未披露其从App Store中删除内容的数据。

虽然[苹果]披露了有关政府限制帐户请求的数据,但它没有披露有关内容删除请求的数据,例如从苹果应用商店删除应用程序的请求。苹果公司对其影响言论自由的政策和做法讳莫如深,这让它的排名低于此类别的所有其他美国公司。

该报告为政府提出了明智而感性的建议。然而,这些建议还强调了与中国政府进行这些讨论是多么的困难。

RDR 建议政府要求公司的透明度并保持透明度。中国当局采取相反的做法 - 他们不希望在这些问题上保持透明度,因为它突显了他们不希望公众了解的信息。当局不希望公司透明,他们可能直接指示Apple不发布他们正删除的内容列表。

苹果可能真的认为他们必须遵守中国的法律条文。或者他们也可能愿意分享有关App Store中被审查内容的信息,但有碍于被中国当局束手束脚。苹果还可能会利用这种情况作为他们打击中国言论自由的掩护。无论Apple的真实动机如何,透明度都能够并已经被强加给他们。

在2019年1月,GreatFire发布了 applecensorship.com。该项目监控Apple在公司运营的每个市场中对App Store的审查。应用程序的可用性测试由网站访问者进行。截至今天,用户生成的测试已经确定了 超过1100个 在中国应用商店中不可用的应用。在中国受审查的应用程序包括那些涉及宗教,新闻,隐私和翻墙的应用程序。通过审查有助于规避审查限制的应用程序,苹果确实的让中国人无法自由访问信息。苹果的中国用户或许认为他们买到的是一流的设备 - 但可以肯定的是,该公司将他们视为二等信息公民。

RDR建议苹果对言论自由的限制保持透明,并公布有关公司因政府要求而删除内容所采取行动的数据。我们邀苹果审核我们在 applecensorship.com 上公开发布的数据,并根据中国当局的指示突出显示已删除应用的情况。

星期四, 11月 30, 2017

关于在中国苹果商店被审查的那674个软件

苹果对中国区的审查行为敞开了大门 - 但这似乎只是冰山一角。

星期二, 5月 23, 2017

Is China establishing cyber sovereignty in the United States?

Last week Twitter came under attack from a DDoS attack orchestrated by the Chinese authorities. While such attacks are not uncommon for websites like Twitter, this one proved unusual. While the Chinese authorities use the Great Firewall to block harmful content from reaching its citizens, it now uses DDoS attacks to take down content that appears on websites beyond its borders. For the Chinese authorities, it is not simply good enough to “protect” the interests of Chinese citizens at home - in their view of cyber sovereignty, any content that might harm China’s interests must be removed, regardless of where the website is located.

And so last week the Chinese authorities determined that Twitter was the target. In particular, the authorities targeted the Twitter account for Guo Wengui (https://twitter.com/KwokMiles), the rebel billionaire who is slowly leaking information about corrupt Chinese government officials via his Twitter account and through his YouTube videos. Guo appeared to ramp up his whistle-blowing efforts last week and the Chinese authorities, in turn, ramped up theirs.

via https://twitter.com/KwokMiles/status/863689935798374401

星期一, 12月 12, 2016

China is the obstacle to Google’s plan to end internet censorship

It’s been three years since Eric Schmidt proclaimed that Google would chart a course to ending online censorship within ten years. Now is a great time to check on Google’s progress, reassess the landscape, benchmark Google’s efforts against others who share the same goal, postulate on the China strategy and offer suggestions on how they might effectively move forward.

flowers on google china plaque

Flowers left outside Google China’s headquarters after its announcement it might leave the country in 2010. Photo: Wikicommons.

What has Google accomplished since November 2013?

The first thing they have accomplished is an entire rebranding of both Google (now Alphabet) and Google Ideas (now Jigsaw). Throughout this blog post, reference is made to both new and old company names.

Google has started to develop two main tools which they believe can help in the fight against censorship. Jigsaw’s DDoS protection service, Project Shield, is effectively preventing censorship-inspired DDoS attacks and recently helped to repel an attack on Brian Krebs’ blog. The service is similar to other anti-DDoS services developed by internet freedom champions and for-profit services like Cloudflare.

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about|preaching about} this. {I will|I'll|I am going to|I most
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made|you've made|you have made}.|
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I {looked|checked} {on the internet|on the web|on the net}
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information} about the issue and found {most individuals|most people}
will go along with your views on {this website|this site|this web site}.|
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every week|daily|on a regular basis}. Your {story-telling|writing|humoristic} style is
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I {simply|just} {could not|couldn't} {leave|depart|go away} your {site|web site|website} {prior to|before} suggesting that I {really|extremely|actually} {enjoyed|loved} {the standard|the usual} {information|info} {a
person|an individual} {supply|provide} {for your|on your|in your|to your}
{visitors|guests}? Is {going to|gonna} be {back|again} {frequently|regularly|incessantly|steadily|ceaselessly|often|continuously} {in order to|to} {check up on|check
out|inspect|investigate cross-check} new posts|
{I wanted|I needed|I want to|I need to} to thank you for this {great|excellent|fantastic|wonderful|good|very good} read!!
I {definitely|certainly|absolutely} {enjoyed|loved} every {little bit of|bit of} it.
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favorite} {to check out|to look at} new {stuff you|things you} post…|
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I {like|wanted} to write a little comment to support you.|
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I {always|for all time|all the time|constantly|every time} emailed this {blog|weblog|webpage|website|web site} post page to
all my {friends|associates|contacts}, {because|since|as|for the
reason that} if like to read it {then|after that|next|afterward} my {friends|links|contacts} will too.|
My {coder|programmer|developer} is trying
to {persuade|convince} me to move to .net from PHP. I have always disliked the idea because of the {expenses|costs}.
But he's tryiong none the less. I've been using {Movable-type|WordPress} on {a number
of|a variety of|numerous|several|various} websites for about
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I could have sworn I've {been to|visited} {this blog|this web site|this website|this site|your
blog} before but after {browsing through|going through|looking at}
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{Terrific|Great|Wonderful} {article|work}! {This is|That is} {the type of|the kind of} {information|info} {that are meant to|that are supposed to|that should} be
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{Disgrace|Shame} on {the {seek|search} engines|Google} for {now not|not|no longer} positioning this {post|submit|publish|put up}
{upper|higher}! Come on over and {talk over with|discuss with|seek advice from|visit|consult with} my
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I hope to give something back and {help|aid} others like you {helped|aided} me.|
{Hi|Hello|Hi there|Hello there|Howdy|Greetings}, {I think|I believe|I do believe|I do
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{to this point|so far|thus far|up to now}? I {amazed|surprised} with the {research|analysis} you
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Heya {i'm|i am} for {the primary|the first} time here.

I {came across|found} this board and I {in finding|find|to find} It {truly|really} {useful|helpful} & it helped me out {a lot|much}.
{I am hoping|I hope|I'm hoping} {to give|to offer|to provide|to
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{I just|I simply} {would like to|want to|wish to} {give you a|offer you a} {huge|big} thumbs up
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I {always|all the time|every time} used to {read|study} {article|post|piece of
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as I am a user of {internet|web|net} {so|thus|therefore} from now I am using net
for {articles|posts|articles or reviews|content}, thanks to web.|
Your {way|method|means|mode} of {describing|explaining|telling} {everything|all|the whole thing} in this {article|post|piece of writing|paragraph} is {really|actually|in fact|truly|genuinely} {nice|pleasant|good|fastidious}, {all|every one} {can|be able
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{Hi|Hello} there, {I found|I discovered} your {blog|website|web site|site} {by means of|via|by the use of|by way of} Google {at the same time
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like} {good|great}. {I have|I've} bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.

{Hello|Hi} there, {simply|just} {turned into|became|was|become|changed into}
{aware of|alert to} your {blog|weblog} {thru|through|via} Google,
{and found|and located} that {it is|it's} {really|truly} informative.
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{I will|I'll} {appreciate|be grateful} {if you|should you|when you|in the event you|in case you|for those who|if you happen to} {continue|proceed}
this {in future}. {A lot of|Lots of|Many|Numerous} {other folks|folks|other people|people} {will be|shall be|might be|will probably be|can be|will likely be}
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happen to be|you are|you're} {working with|utilizing|using}?
I'm {experiencing|having} some {minor|small} security {problems|issues} with my latest {site|website|blog} and {I would|I'd} like
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{I am|I'm} {extremely|really} impressed with your writing skills {and also|as well as} with the layout on your
{blog|weblog}. Is this a paid theme or did you {customize|modify} it yourself?
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{I am|I'm} {extremely|really} {inspired|impressed} {with your|together with your|along with
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{rare|uncommon} {to peer|to see|to look} a {nice|great} {blog|weblog} like this one {these days|nowadays|today}..|
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{leader|chief} and {a large|a good|a big|a huge} {part of|section of|component to|portion of|component of|element of} {other folks|folks|other people|people} will {leave out|omit|miss|pass over} your {great|wonderful|fantastic|magnificent|excellent} writing {due to|because of} this
problem.|
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I needs to spend some time learning {more|much more} or understanding more.

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“return the favor”.{I am|I'm} {trying to|attempting to} find things to {improve|enhance} my {website|site|web
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