Github被封锁,中国政府想激怒所有程序员么

发生了什么?

更新: 在1月23日, https://github.com 已经被解封.

在1月18日,或者18日之前(虽然我们的数据没有包括),GFW开始对“*.github.com”进行连接重置。因此,Github的所有代码分享的子域名都无法在中国访问,比如 aoxu.github.com。Github主站点没有收到太大的影像。第一,它使用Github.com,是根域名。第二,其服务器会自动使用Https加密,防止GFW进行关键字匹配,从而连接重置。

1天后,对Github的封锁包含了github.com根域名的封锁,使用的也是关键字匹配。中国用户还是可以访问Github,只要用户人工输入https://github.com (注意https)。奇怪的是www.github.com被DNS污染,但其他子域名都没有被污染。www这个子域名并没有被Github使用。

在1月21日,DNS污染包含了所有Github.com的域名,包括了根域名和所有子域名。因此,所有Github服务都在中国被封锁。

有趣的是,Github被封锁的消息没有在中国的社交媒体上被审查。“Github”关键字没有被新浪微博屏蔽,而且在自由微博上,我们没有监测到任何含"Github"被审查的微博。

参见本文末尾的时间线来了解关于此次封锁的更多技术细节。

 

为什么,为什么啊?

当中国互联网审查有动静时,第一个问题总是问为什么。虽然我们不能确定,但这并不阻止我们,或者其他任何人进行猜测。

一些人认为这次的封锁使因为Mongol project,建立在Github上Mongol使一个开源的工具来检测具体哪个路由器对数据包进行了过滤,从而得知GFW的具体位置。虽然这样的工具看起来会对中国政府造成威胁,但是以下的事实表明这次封锁使针对Mongol是不太可能的:这个工具在一个月前就被发布在Github上了,并且工具的工作原理在2011年就被发表了,并且相关的论文仍然没有被屏蔽

另一个猜测是中国政府乘机封锁一个提供加密访问的文件分享网站,虽然目的是代码分享,但仍可以用来分享政治敏感的言论。其他文件分享网站也面临相同的遭遇,包括Dropbox。Dropbox在2010年被封锁。Github被网民用来分享信息么?

火车票理论

最引人注目的理论是此次封锁和中国春运的关系。每年上千万中国人会拼命抢着购买有限的火车票来回家,和家人一起度过春节。火车票在中国只能提前18天预定。上千万中国人在春节乘火车回家,买火车票是一个大挑战。失败可能意味着错过了在一年中唯一一次见家人的机会。

随着互联网用户的增加,很多火车票在12306.cn出售。12306是中国政府官方的火车票售卖网站。在等火车票开始售卖的时候,用户会不停的刷新网页。这当然能程序员轻松解决。许多中国浏览器提供商提供了插件,让电脑自动刷新网站,并且当火车票发售后,迅速订票。

一个特别的插件叫做12306_ticket_helper (https://github.com/iccfish/12306_ticket_helper, 现在已经被删除了). 此软件引用了Github的文件。这个插件的流行到导致了Github流量暴增,Github甚至因此下线了。一个Github雇员给12306发了抱怨信。Github不知道文件是被浏览器插件引用的,而不是被12306.cn这个网站本身引用的。

在1月18日,和对Github封锁发生的同时,据传中国铁路局要求金山网络-另一个浏览器提供商,停止火车票抢票插件。当日,工信部要求所有浏览器提供商停止类似插件的运营。

Github只是在错误的时间错误的地点么?不难想象,铁路局和工信部一发声,所有人都听命了。他们可能发现Github也在其中有一脚,索性屏蔽掉它算了。

如果这是真的话,此次事件揭露了中国审查的一些信息。Github被封锁可能有解释。第一,控制GFW规则的员工想审查什么就审查什么(抢票事件),不需要经过什么复杂的手续。另一个解释是控制GFW的机构非常无能,不能理解Github的重要性。他们可能懒得去调查,或者一点都不关注封锁Github对中国程序员的产生的后果。

我们的结果表示真正的原因可能是以上两种解释的混合。首先,审查员关键字屏蔽了*.github.com但发现其没有效果。这表示审查员/审查机构根本不知道Github是如何运作的,并且他们想怎么审查就怎么审查。

HTTPS 理论 (无论这样都是正确的)

因为Github是只提供Https访问的,GFW无法选择性封锁页面。无论中国政府想屏蔽哪个页面,唯一的办法是把整个Github都屏蔽了。这可能对其他网站提供了暗示。当越来越多的网站支持加密连接,选择性审查页面越来越难操作。如果谷歌搜索,维基百科和CNN都只支持HTTPS,中国政府会把他们完全封锁么?

此次封锁会带来什么后果?

根据Alexa,Github是中国排名第276的网站。其全球排名是209位。因为它是只针对程序员的,这个排名并不差。Github官方告诉Tecinasia.网站访问量中国用户名列第四。比其靠前的国外网站只有谷歌,必应(包括Live.com, Microsoft.com, Msn.com),亚马逊,雅虎,维基百科,苹果,ebay和Adobe.

虽然Github很受欢迎,其他类似的服务也有很多。比如Google code 就没有被封锁,虽然Https版本有时候被封锁。如果它变成只支持Https,Google code可能会和Github面临相同的问题。Sourceforge也没有被封锁,其他类似的小型网站也没有被封锁。

程序员一般需要使用项目已经在用的代码分享网站。在项目中途更换网站是很复杂的。许多中国的程序员,特别是那些为国外客户服务的程序员可能必须使用翻墙软件来工作。但因为翻墙软件正被积极的封锁,许多程序员可能根本没法进行工作了。

中国在吸引外企很成功,因为成本低,人才多。在中国的外商现在可能会认为将人力资源部署在中国不是一个好主意,因为这个国家能随时的无警告的屏蔽关键的科技资源。使用Gmail的公司可能已经知道他们的通信设施能随意被关闭。大部分收到去年11月完全屏蔽Google事件的企业可能已经找到了代替Gmail的企业解决方案。现在,他们可能会寻找代替中国的解决方案。

最致命的后果还可能是对中国年轻人态度的印象。中国审查员可能非常有效的激怒了全国的程序员。虽然他们可能已经知道如何翻墙,但是必须使用翻墙软件和VPN工作会激怒他们。中国想把所有年轻人变成黑客么?这会把匿名组织带到中国么?中国审查可能已经到了穷途末路了?

如何规避这次的屏蔽?

如果你阅读此文的时候GFW还没有倒下,你可以使用以下的方法来访问Github.

如果你使用VPN,你的所有流量会经过国外的服务器,Github不会受到任何影响。除非GFW把Github的IP也屏蔽了,另一个简单的解决方案是修改Hosts文件,添加以下记录:

207.97.227.239 github.com

添加以下记录之后,  https://github.com 能够在墙内访问. 不加密的 http://github.com 仍然不能访问, 所以记得人工输入“https”。

Github的IP地址可能会变化。一个更加稳定的解决方案是使用加密的DNS查询服务,比如DNSCrypt,这个服务会避免DNS回应被污染。讽刺的是,Mac版本是建立在Github上的,所以被屏蔽了。但最终下载地址是h ttp://download.dnscrypt.org/guis/opendns/osx/dnscrypt-osx-client-0.19.dmg 没有被屏蔽

如果你使用SSH tunnel或者其他形式的代理,你可以加入以下条目

git config --global http.proxy YOUR_PROXY

时间线

日期事件引用
1月18*.github.com包括www.github.com被连接重置 (没有被DNS污染)https://zh.greatfire.org/www.github.com
https://zh.greatfire.org/aoxu.github.com
https://zh.greatfire.org/jingyuan.github.com
https://zh.greatfire.org/pages.github.com
1月 19github.com连接被重置https://zh.greatfire.org/github.com
1月19 www.github.com被DNS污染https://zh.greatfire.org/www.github.com
https://zh.greatfire.org/https/www.github.com
1月 19在Google搜索www.github.com 包含了.github.com关键字,所以搜索会被重置https://zh.greatfire.org/www.google.com/search%3Fq%3Dwww.github.com
1月20*.github.com 连接被重置(仍然没有被DNS污染)https://zh.greatfire.org/cwyalpha.github.com
https://zh.greatfire.org/raw.github.com
1月21github.com根域名被DNS污染 ( *.github.com也被DNS污染)https://zh.greatfire.org/github.com
https://zh.greatfire.org/https/github.com
https://zh.greatfire.org/fanzuoyong.github.com
https://zh.greatfire.org/https/gist.github.com

 

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星期一, 8月 03, 2020

Announcing the Release of GreatFire Appmaker

GreatFire (https://en.greatfire.org/), a China-focused censorship monitoring organization, is proud to announce that we have developed and released a new anti-censorship tool that will enable any blocked media outlet, blogger, human rights group, or civil society organization to evade censors and get their content onto the phones of millions of readers and supporters in China and other countries that censor the Internet.

GreatFire has built an Android mobile app creator, called “GreatFire AppMaker”, that can be used by organizations to unblock their content for users in China and other countries. Organizations can visit a website (https://appmaker.greatfire.org/) which will compile an app that is branded with the organization’s own logo and will feature their own, formerly blocked content. The app will also contain a special, censorship-circumventing web browser so that users can access the uncensored World Wide Web. The apps will use multiple strategies, including machine learning, to evade advanced censorship tactics employed by the Chinese authorities.  This project will work equally well in other countries that have China-like censorship restrictions. For both organizations and end users, the apps will be free, fast, and extremely easy to use.

This project was inspired by China-based GreatFire’s first-hand experience with our own FreeBrowser app (https://freebrowser.org/en) and desire to help small NGOs who may not have the in-house expertise to circumvent Chinese censorship. GreatFire’s anti-censorship tools have worked in China when others do not. FreeBrowser directs Chinese internet users to normally censored stories from the app’s start page (http://manyvoices.news/).

星期五, 7月 24, 2020

Apple, anticompetition, and censorship

On July 20, 2020, GreatFire wrote to all 13 members of the Subcommittee on Antitrust, Commercial and Administrative Law of the U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, requesting a thorough examination into Apple’s practice of censorship of its App Store, and an investigation into how the company collaborates with the Chinese authorities to maintain its unique position as one of the few foreign tech companies operating profitably in the Chinese digital market.  

This letter was sent a week before Apple CEO TIm Cook will be called for questioning in front of the Subcommittee on Antitrust, Commercial and Administrative Law. The CEOs of Amazon, Google and Facebook will also be questioned on July 27, as part of the Committee’s ongoing investigation into competition in the digital marketplace.

This hearing offers an opportunity to detail to the Subcommittee how Apple uses its closed operating ecosystem to not only abuse its market position but also to deprive certain users, most notably those in China, of their right to download and use apps related to privacy, secure communication, and censorship circumvention.

We hope that U.S. House representatives agree with our view that Apple should not be allowed to do elsewhere what would be considered as unacceptable in the U.S. Chinese citizens are not second class citizens. Private companies such as Apple compromise themselves and their self-proclaimed values of freedom and privacy when they collaborate with the Chinese government and its censors.

星期一, 6月 10, 2019

苹果审查中国西藏的信息

苹果在涉及西藏的审查方面有着悠久历史。 2009年,据计算机世界网透露 ,与达赖喇嘛有关的几个应用程序在苹果的中国区应用商店中不存在。这些应用的开发者未收到他们的应用被删除的通知。当面对这些审查制度时,苹果发言人只是说该公司将“继续遵守当地法律”。

2017年12月,在中国的一次会议上,当被问及与中国当局合作审查苹果应用商店时,蒂姆·库克 宣称

“所以你的选择是参与进去,还是站在局外,吼叫着事情应当怎样?我自己的看法非常强烈,你得进入赛场,因为没有任何东西会从局外发生改变。"

自苹果公司首次因与中国当局合作以遏制已被边缘化的声音而被批评的十年间,情况发生了什么变化?苹果继续严格遵守中国当局的审查令。蒂姆库克什么时候会期望他的公司能帮助在中国带来积极的变化?

根据生成的数据 https://applecensorship.com,Apple现在已经审查了在中国应用商店中29个西藏的热门应用程序。关于新闻,宗教研究,旅游甚至游戏的西藏主题应用程序正在被苹果审查。最下方附有完整的审查应用列表。

“苹果的领导力隐藏在他们审查应用程序以遵守模糊的'中国当地法律'的借口,但他们的行为缺乏任何透明度。通过从中国苹果应用商店删除藏文和其他许多应用程序,苹果阻碍了藏人获取信息和自由表达自己的能力,这是国际法下的一项基本人权。“ TibCERT(西藏计算机应急准备小组)的响应协调员Dorjee Phuntsok说道。 他们与GreatFire合作对被屏蔽的应用程序进行了分析。

   2019年1月,GreatFire推出了applecensorship.com。在那时,GreatFire联合创始人马丁约翰逊指出:“苹果公司在其透明度报告中没有分享有关应用商店审查的信息 - 该项目强制透明度。蒂姆库克可以随心所欲地说苹果在中国做了或没有做什么,但 applecensorship.com 提供了可以实际看到苹果实施审查原始数据的途径。

分析苹果在中国审查的iOS应用程序

有许多应用程序由藏人或为藏人制作,苹果正在审查中国区应用商店中的许多应用程序。了解某些应用程序被阻止的方式和原因以及这些决策背后的基本原理非常重要。为了解这一点,TibCERT(西藏应急准备小组)对在中国应用商店中被审查的藏文应用程序进行了分析。该研究使用关键字搜索藏文应用程序,然后使用GreatFire提供的应用程序审查平台。

TibCERT分析了119个以藏语为主题的iOS应用程序。使用“西藏”,“藏人”,“达赖喇嘛”,“佛教”,“藏传佛教”,等关键词搜索苹果应用商店时,可以找到下面列出的应用程序。这些应用程序分为五大类:“宗教或文化”,“媒体/政治”,“娱乐”,“工具”和“教育”。

星期四, 6月 06, 2019

重点关注苹果在中国审查实践的报告

最新的 数字版权企业责任指数排名 就公司和政府需要做些什么来提出建议,以改善全球互联网用户的人权保护。数字版权排名(RDR)旨在通过为公司尊重和保护用户权利制定全球标准和激励措施,以促进互联网上的言论自由和隐私权。

在他们的2019年责任指数中,RDR着眼于24家世界上最重要的互联网公司在言论自由和隐私方面的政策,并强调了那些尚需努力和已经取得改进的公司。 RDR指出:

透明度不足使私人政党,政府和公司本身更容易通过网络言论滥用权力,并规避责任。

特别是,该报告强调了苹果如何滥用其网络言论的权力,并在中国指出这一点。根据该报告,苹果公司在面对政府当局提出的要求时,并未披露其从App Store中删除内容的数据。

虽然[苹果]披露了有关政府限制帐户请求的数据,但它没有披露有关内容删除请求的数据,例如从苹果应用商店删除应用程序的请求。苹果公司对其影响言论自由的政策和做法讳莫如深,这让它的排名低于此类别的所有其他美国公司。

该报告为政府提出了明智而感性的建议。然而,这些建议还强调了与中国政府进行这些讨论是多么的困难。

RDR 建议政府要求公司的透明度并保持透明度。中国当局采取相反的做法 - 他们不希望在这些问题上保持透明度,因为它突显了他们不希望公众了解的信息。当局不希望公司透明,他们可能直接指示Apple不发布他们正删除的内容列表。

苹果可能真的认为他们必须遵守中国的法律条文。或者他们也可能愿意分享有关App Store中被审查内容的信息,但有碍于被中国当局束手束脚。苹果还可能会利用这种情况作为他们打击中国言论自由的掩护。无论Apple的真实动机如何,透明度都能够并已经被强加给他们。

在2019年1月,GreatFire发布了 applecensorship.com。该项目监控Apple在公司运营的每个市场中对App Store的审查。应用程序的可用性测试由网站访问者进行。截至今天,用户生成的测试已经确定了 超过1100个 在中国应用商店中不可用的应用。在中国受审查的应用程序包括那些涉及宗教,新闻,隐私和翻墙的应用程序。通过审查有助于规避审查限制的应用程序,苹果确实的让中国人无法自由访问信息。苹果的中国用户或许认为他们买到的是一流的设备 - 但可以肯定的是,该公司将他们视为二等信息公民。

RDR建议苹果对言论自由的限制保持透明,并公布有关公司因政府要求而删除内容所采取行动的数据。我们邀苹果审核我们在 applecensorship.com 上公开发布的数据,并根据中国当局的指示突出显示已删除应用的情况。

星期四, 11月 30, 2017

关于在中国苹果商店被审查的那674个软件

苹果对中国区的审查行为敞开了大门 - 但这似乎只是冰山一角。
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