Github被封锁,中国政府想激怒所有程序员么

发生了什么?

更新: 在1月23日, https://github.com 已经被解封.

在1月18日,或者18日之前(虽然我们的数据没有包括),GFW开始对“*.github.com”进行连接重置。因此,Github的所有代码分享的子域名都无法在中国访问,比如 aoxu.github.com。Github主站点没有收到太大的影像。第一,它使用Github.com,是根域名。第二,其服务器会自动使用Https加密,防止GFW进行关键字匹配,从而连接重置。

1天后,对Github的封锁包含了github.com根域名的封锁,使用的也是关键字匹配。中国用户还是可以访问Github,只要用户人工输入https://github.com (注意https)。奇怪的是www.github.com被DNS污染,但其他子域名都没有被污染。www这个子域名并没有被Github使用。

在1月21日,DNS污染包含了所有Github.com的域名,包括了根域名和所有子域名。因此,所有Github服务都在中国被封锁。

有趣的是,Github被封锁的消息没有在中国的社交媒体上被审查。“Github”关键字没有被新浪微博屏蔽,而且在自由微博上,我们没有监测到任何含"Github"被审查的微博。

参见本文末尾的时间线来了解关于此次封锁的更多技术细节。

 

为什么,为什么啊?

当中国互联网审查有动静时,第一个问题总是问为什么。虽然我们不能确定,但这并不阻止我们,或者其他任何人进行猜测。

一些人认为这次的封锁使因为Mongol project,建立在Github上Mongol使一个开源的工具来检测具体哪个路由器对数据包进行了过滤,从而得知GFW的具体位置。虽然这样的工具看起来会对中国政府造成威胁,但是以下的事实表明这次封锁使针对Mongol是不太可能的:这个工具在一个月前就被发布在Github上了,并且工具的工作原理在2011年就被发表了,并且相关的论文仍然没有被屏蔽

另一个猜测是中国政府乘机封锁一个提供加密访问的文件分享网站,虽然目的是代码分享,但仍可以用来分享政治敏感的言论。其他文件分享网站也面临相同的遭遇,包括Dropbox。Dropbox在2010年被封锁。Github被网民用来分享信息么?

火车票理论

最引人注目的理论是此次封锁和中国春运的关系。每年上千万中国人会拼命抢着购买有限的火车票来回家,和家人一起度过春节。火车票在中国只能提前18天预定。上千万中国人在春节乘火车回家,买火车票是一个大挑战。失败可能意味着错过了在一年中唯一一次见家人的机会。

随着互联网用户的增加,很多火车票在12306.cn出售。12306是中国政府官方的火车票售卖网站。在等火车票开始售卖的时候,用户会不停的刷新网页。这当然能程序员轻松解决。许多中国浏览器提供商提供了插件,让电脑自动刷新网站,并且当火车票发售后,迅速订票。

一个特别的插件叫做12306_ticket_helper (https://github.com/iccfish/12306_ticket_helper, 现在已经被删除了). 此软件引用了Github的文件。这个插件的流行到导致了Github流量暴增,Github甚至因此下线了。一个Github雇员给12306发了抱怨信。Github不知道文件是被浏览器插件引用的,而不是被12306.cn这个网站本身引用的。

在1月18日,和对Github封锁发生的同时,据传中国铁路局要求金山网络-另一个浏览器提供商,停止火车票抢票插件。当日,工信部要求所有浏览器提供商停止类似插件的运营。

Github只是在错误的时间错误的地点么?不难想象,铁路局和工信部一发声,所有人都听命了。他们可能发现Github也在其中有一脚,索性屏蔽掉它算了。

如果这是真的话,此次事件揭露了中国审查的一些信息。Github被封锁可能有解释。第一,控制GFW规则的员工想审查什么就审查什么(抢票事件),不需要经过什么复杂的手续。另一个解释是控制GFW的机构非常无能,不能理解Github的重要性。他们可能懒得去调查,或者一点都不关注封锁Github对中国程序员的产生的后果。

我们的结果表示真正的原因可能是以上两种解释的混合。首先,审查员关键字屏蔽了*.github.com但发现其没有效果。这表示审查员/审查机构根本不知道Github是如何运作的,并且他们想怎么审查就怎么审查。

HTTPS 理论 (无论这样都是正确的)

因为Github是只提供Https访问的,GFW无法选择性封锁页面。无论中国政府想屏蔽哪个页面,唯一的办法是把整个Github都屏蔽了。这可能对其他网站提供了暗示。当越来越多的网站支持加密连接,选择性审查页面越来越难操作。如果谷歌搜索,维基百科和CNN都只支持HTTPS,中国政府会把他们完全封锁么?

此次封锁会带来什么后果?

根据Alexa,Github是中国排名第276的网站。其全球排名是209位。因为它是只针对程序员的,这个排名并不差。Github官方告诉Tecinasia.网站访问量中国用户名列第四。比其靠前的国外网站只有谷歌,必应(包括Live.com, Microsoft.com, Msn.com),亚马逊,雅虎,维基百科,苹果,ebay和Adobe.

虽然Github很受欢迎,其他类似的服务也有很多。比如Google code 就没有被封锁,虽然Https版本有时候被封锁。如果它变成只支持Https,Google code可能会和Github面临相同的问题。Sourceforge也没有被封锁,其他类似的小型网站也没有被封锁。

程序员一般需要使用项目已经在用的代码分享网站。在项目中途更换网站是很复杂的。许多中国的程序员,特别是那些为国外客户服务的程序员可能必须使用翻墙软件来工作。但因为翻墙软件正被积极的封锁,许多程序员可能根本没法进行工作了。

中国在吸引外企很成功,因为成本低,人才多。在中国的外商现在可能会认为将人力资源部署在中国不是一个好主意,因为这个国家能随时的无警告的屏蔽关键的科技资源。使用Gmail的公司可能已经知道他们的通信设施能随意被关闭。大部分收到去年11月完全屏蔽Google事件的企业可能已经找到了代替Gmail的企业解决方案。现在,他们可能会寻找代替中国的解决方案。

最致命的后果还可能是对中国年轻人态度的印象。中国审查员可能非常有效的激怒了全国的程序员。虽然他们可能已经知道如何翻墙,但是必须使用翻墙软件和VPN工作会激怒他们。中国想把所有年轻人变成黑客么?这会把匿名组织带到中国么?中国审查可能已经到了穷途末路了?

如何规避这次的屏蔽?

如果你阅读此文的时候GFW还没有倒下,你可以使用以下的方法来访问Github.

如果你使用VPN,你的所有流量会经过国外的服务器,Github不会受到任何影响。除非GFW把Github的IP也屏蔽了,另一个简单的解决方案是修改Hosts文件,添加以下记录:

207.97.227.239 github.com

添加以下记录之后,  https://github.com 能够在墙内访问. 不加密的 http://github.com 仍然不能访问, 所以记得人工输入“https”。

Github的IP地址可能会变化。一个更加稳定的解决方案是使用加密的DNS查询服务,比如DNSCrypt,这个服务会避免DNS回应被污染。讽刺的是,Mac版本是建立在Github上的,所以被屏蔽了。但最终下载地址是h ttp://download.dnscrypt.org/guis/opendns/osx/dnscrypt-osx-client-0.19.dmg 没有被屏蔽

如果你使用SSH tunnel或者其他形式的代理,你可以加入以下条目

git config --global http.proxy YOUR_PROXY

时间线

日期事件引用
1月18*.github.com包括www.github.com被连接重置 (没有被DNS污染)https://zh.greatfire.org/www.github.com
https://zh.greatfire.org/aoxu.github.com
https://zh.greatfire.org/jingyuan.github.com
https://zh.greatfire.org/pages.github.com
1月 19github.com连接被重置https://zh.greatfire.org/github.com
1月19 www.github.com被DNS污染https://zh.greatfire.org/www.github.com
https://zh.greatfire.org/https/www.github.com
1月 19在Google搜索www.github.com 包含了.github.com关键字,所以搜索会被重置https://zh.greatfire.org/www.google.com/search%3Fq%3Dwww.github.com
1月20*.github.com 连接被重置(仍然没有被DNS污染)https://zh.greatfire.org/cwyalpha.github.com
https://zh.greatfire.org/raw.github.com
1月21github.com根域名被DNS污染 ( *.github.com也被DNS污染)https://zh.greatfire.org/github.com
https://zh.greatfire.org/https/github.com
https://zh.greatfire.org/fanzuoyong.github.com
https://zh.greatfire.org/https/gist.github.com

 

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星期四, 11月 30, 2017

关于在中国苹果商店被审查的那674个软件

苹果对中国区的审查行为敞开了大门 - 但这似乎只是冰山一角。

星期二, 5月 23, 2017

Is China establishing cyber sovereignty in the United States?

Last week Twitter came under attack from a DDoS attack orchestrated by the Chinese authorities. While such attacks are not uncommon for websites like Twitter, this one proved unusual. While the Chinese authorities use the Great Firewall to block harmful content from reaching its citizens, it now uses DDoS attacks to take down content that appears on websites beyond its borders. For the Chinese authorities, it is not simply good enough to “protect” the interests of Chinese citizens at home - in their view of cyber sovereignty, any content that might harm China’s interests must be removed, regardless of where the website is located.

And so last week the Chinese authorities determined that Twitter was the target. In particular, the authorities targeted the Twitter account for Guo Wengui (https://twitter.com/KwokMiles), the rebel billionaire who is slowly leaking information about corrupt Chinese government officials via his Twitter account and through his YouTube videos. Guo appeared to ramp up his whistle-blowing efforts last week and the Chinese authorities, in turn, ramped up theirs.

via https://twitter.com/KwokMiles/status/863689935798374401

星期一, 12月 12, 2016

China is the obstacle to Google’s plan to end internet censorship

It’s been three years since Eric Schmidt proclaimed that Google would chart a course to ending online censorship within ten years. Now is a great time to check on Google’s progress, reassess the landscape, benchmark Google’s efforts against others who share the same goal, postulate on the China strategy and offer suggestions on how they might effectively move forward.

flowers on google china plaque

Flowers left outside Google China’s headquarters after its announcement it might leave the country in 2010. Photo: Wikicommons.

What has Google accomplished since November 2013?

The first thing they have accomplished is an entire rebranding of both Google (now Alphabet) and Google Ideas (now Jigsaw). Throughout this blog post, reference is made to both new and old company names.

Google has started to develop two main tools which they believe can help in the fight against censorship. Jigsaw’s DDoS protection service, Project Shield, is effectively preventing censorship-inspired DDoS attacks and recently helped to repel an attack on Brian Krebs’ blog. The service is similar to other anti-DDoS services developed by internet freedom champions and for-profit services like Cloudflare.

星期四, 11月 24, 2016

Facebook: Please, not like this

Facebook is considering launching a censorship tool that would enable the world’s biggest social network to “enter” the China market. Sadly, nobody will be surprised by anything that Mark Zuckerberg decides to do in order to enter the China market. With such low expectations, Facebook is poised to usurp Apple as China’s favorite foreign intelligence gathering partner. If the company launches in China using this strategy they will also successfully erase any bargaining power that other media organizations may hold with the Chinese authorities.

星期二, 7月 05, 2016

GreatFire.org 现在开始测试VPN在中国的速度和稳定性

在中国有一个普遍观念,如果你有一个可以使用的VPN,那么你应该保持沉默。就信息自由而言,这种观念的问题在于获取知识竟成了一种秘密。今天,我们推出一个项目,希望能够摧毁这种模型。

我们最新的网站,翻墙中心,目的在于实时提供那些能够在中国使用的翻墙方案的信息和数据。在2011年以来我们就已经开始收集在中国被屏蔽的网站,现在我们也将增加那些可用的VPN和其他翻墙工具。

我们发布翻墙中心主要有四个目的。

我们的首要目标是助长使用翻墙工具的国人的数量。通过分享我们这些工具的信息和数据,我们希望对更广泛的受众展示那些工具时可以使用的。

我们的第二个目标是通过带来工具性能的透明化来提升中国用户的翻墙体验。我们将会测试工具的速度(流行网站的加载速度)和稳定性(流行网站加载成功的程度)。

我们开发速度测试的目的是要真实反映用户的体验。当用户在网站测速时,浏览器在后台会从10个世界上最流行的网站上下载一些资源文件。根据Alexa排名,这些网站分别是Google, Facebook, YouTube, Baidu, Amazon, Yahoo, Wikipedia, QQ, Twitter and Microsoft Live。速度的结果是简单的计算下载文件文件的大小和下载所需的时间。我们同样也会验证下载的文件是否完整。如果文件的内容是错误的或者在40秒内无法完成下载,我们会标记为失败。这个数据被我们用来生成另一个重要指标-稳定性。

其他的速度测试工具仅仅是通过发送数据到它们自己的服务器来测量上传和下载的速度。这种数据无法反应用户的体验,因为正常的浏览器通常会频繁的发送一系列的请求(而不是上传或下载一个大文件)到许多的服务器,而不止是一个。

我们的第二个指标 - 稳定性 - 是其他的服务通常不会测试的。一个健康的互联网连接应该达到100%的稳定性,除非有人在测试中把网线拔了。但是在中国使用翻墙工具却不是这样。任何时候连接都有可能变得不稳定或十分缓慢。根据请求的大小,最终的地点和代理的方式,一些请求有可能会失败。比较服务的稳定性要比比较速度更加重要。

你可以测试任意的翻墙工具,列表之外的也可以。中国的VPN用户也可以测试他们的工具,测试结果也会添加到数据库中。这些数据都将会对所有人开放。实时的在中国测试是非常重要的,因为VPN随时都可能被封锁或解封。我们欢迎任何的关于测试过程的反馈。有技术能力的用户也可以通过审查我们的javascript代码来获悉我们的测试是如何工作的。

我们郑重的邀请翻墙工具的开发者们向我们提供测试过程的反馈。我们的第三个目标是帮助这些开发人员改进他们的产品,让更多的选择适用于中国的顾客。此外,越多的工具可以工作,就意味着中国当局对翻墙的打击就会越难。

中国的用户都知道,在过去的18个月中当局加紧了对翻墙工具的攻击。而翻墙中心将会吹响反击的号角。反其道而行之,让这不再成为秘密。我们要鼓励人们分享翻墙工具可以工作的信息。

我们的第四个目标就是要为GreatFire.org创造收益。目前GreatFire仍然依靠世界各地的热心人士和组织的捐款。我们希望减少对这些机构的依赖,并探寻GreatFire.org自给自足的道路。用户只需到翻墙中心就能购买任意一款我们目前在测试的付费工具。GreatFire将作为这些工具在中国的经销商,因此VPN供应商会给予我们每个零售的一部分。用户也不必在中国购买这些翻墙服务。

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