中美互联网论坛回信

This is a translation of a Human Rights Watch letter "To the CEOs of technology firms participating in the US-China Internet Industry Forum:". See more at: https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/supporting_resources/hrw_open_letter_re_us-china_internet_industry_forum.pdf

 

September 18, 2015 

2015年9月18日

关于美中网络产业论坛的信函

致参与本次美中网络产业论坛各科技公司首席执行官:

人权观察是一个国际非政府组织,监察并报导世界近90国的人权侵犯问题。我们纪录并倡导解决中国的人权侵犯逾二十年,并为维护网络言论自由作出同样努力已达十年。

 

我们谨此致函,关注各位即将在中国国家主席习近平和国家互联网信息办公室主任鲁炜赴华盛顿特区进行国事访问前,和他们共同出席9月22至23日在西雅图举行的美中网络产业论坛及相关会议。我们敦促各位利用这次机会要求习主席改变其扩大网络监控、审查和数据收集的政策,并要求他和其他领导人保护隐私权和其他网络人权。我们期待您的公司至少应借此场合公开承诺,不会重蹈某些西方网络公司的覆辙,协助中国政府侵犯言论自由和个人隐私。鉴于您的公司曾经强烈抨击美国政府大规模监控网络,面对中国当然也不应降低标准。

互联网在中国扮演着创造透明性和推动人权侵犯获得救济的关键角色。网络实际上已成为中国仅存的公共空间,让人民可以在一定限度内发泄怨愤、交流观点和批评政府。通过集体探讨公共事件,例如2015年的天津仓库爆炸或2011年的温州动车出轨,中国民众得以推动政府强化问责和透明度。

然而,自从习主席于2013年3月上任以后,他的政府对言论自由和尊重公民社会等基本人权展开十年来最大规模的打压。(注1)在习主席前任手中完成的中国互联网基础建设,本来就以国家高度管控与审查为目的,习主席上任后,更强调互联网失控可能“亡党亡国”。近年来,中国当局不仅持续修建网络“防火长城”,更走向全面规管国內网络空间以维护“网络空间主权”,禁止政府机关采用外国科技,以“网络安全”为由加强检查相关科技,强化网络审查机构,拘捕具影响力的博客,并严格限制网民利用虚拟专用网(VPN)浏览遭政府屏蔽的境外网站。中国政府已草拟完成新的《网络安全法》,规定无论境内或境外的网络运营商都必须实施内容审查,登录用户真实身份,将数据存储于境内,并协助政府监控。(注2)

中国政府长期采取的策略着重在保护中国境内网络公司,监测并处罚批评政府的网络言论,以及尽可能控制网上内容。如今它日益试图要求外国公司协助中国政府执行其安全与监控目标,并通过法律规定或“自愿”服从确保网络科技的“可控性”。

您的公司在美国向來扮演捍卫言论自由和隐私权的关键要角。我们十分赞许各位在斯诺登事件后为推动监控计划改革所做出的努力。我们也欣见许多公司以坚定立场抵制美国执法单位的要求,拒绝在您公司的产品中设置便于政府监控的“后门”。

我们不应忘记,外国科技公司对中国政府具有相当影响力。您的公司研发出世上最尖端的科技,中国政府非常需要利用它们促进国家的经济繁荣。

然而,近期的媒体报导令我们深感忧虑,有些美国公司正在考虑──甚至已经被迫接受──将中国用户数据存储在中国境内,以交换中国政府准入其市场。这种做法令人质疑这些公司未来如何应付调阅用户数据的要求,尤其是在一个隐私权在法律上或实务上缺乏充分保障,而且和平的政治异见被等同于颠覆政权的国家。一旦您的公司将用户数据存储在中国境内,您的公司将更难避免沦为中国政府打压言论的助力。(注3)

您的公司有责任尊重人权,避免公司运营导致人权侵犯。我们了解中国对您的公司而言是一个重要市场,但我们期盼您致力促进和保护中国人权,如同在美国一样。习主席的访问和美中网络产业论坛是绝佳的机会,表明您的公司捍卫隐私权和其他人权以及您拒绝成为政府监控共犯的立场,在中国和在美国同样坚定。

本人将乐于有机会与您讨论上述重大议题。

人权观察执行董事

肯尼思・罗斯  谨上

 

CC:

收件人:


Mr. Larry Page, Chief Executive Officer
Alphabet Inc.
Google Inc.

阿尔法貝特公司、谷歌公司首席执行官

赖瑞・佩吉先生

 

Mr. Sundar Pichai, Chief Executive Officer- Designate
Google Inc.

谷歌公司候任首席执行官

桑达・皮采先生

 

Mr. Tim Cook , Chief Executive Officer
Apple Inc.

苹果公司首席执行官

提姆・库克先生

 

Mr. Chuck Robbins, Chief Executive Officer
Cisco Systems, Inc.

思科系统公司首席执行官

恰克・罗宾斯先生

 

Mr. John Chambers, Executive Chairman
Cisco Systems, Inc.

思科系统公司执行主席

约翰・钱伯斯先生

 

Mr. Mark Zuckerberg, Chief Executive Officer
Facebook

脸书首席执行官

马克・祖伯格先生

 

Ms. Ginni Rometty, Chief Executive Officer
IBM Corporation

国际商业机器公司首席执行官

罗睿兰女士

 

Mr. Satya Nadella, Chief Executive Officer
Micosoft

微软公司首席执行官

萨蒂亚・纳德拉先生

 

Mr. Travis Kalanick, Chief Executive Officer
Uber Technologies, Inc.

优步科技公司首席执行官

崔维斯・卡兰尼克先生

 

[1] Human Rights Watch, World Report 2015 (New York: Human Rights Watch, 2015), China Chapter, https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2015/country-chapters/china-and-tibet; Maya Wang, “Dispatches: Gagging the Critics in China,” August 21, 2015, http://www.hrw.org/news/2015/08/21/dispatches-gagging-critics-china; Maya Wang, “Dispatches: China Tightens Screws on Civil Society,” May 8, 2015, http://www.hrw.org/news/2015/05/08/dispatches-china-tightens-screws-civi... “China: Quashing Criticism at Home and Abroad,” Oxford University China Africa Network, May 27, 2014, http://www.hrw.org/news/2014/05/27/china-quashing-criticism-home-and-abr... 注1:人权观察,《2015世界人权报告》(纽约:人权观察,2015),中国专章,https://www.hrw.org/zh-hans/world-report/2015/country-chapters/268174;王松莲,〈时评:中国钳制批评言论〉,2015年8月21日,;王松莲,〈时评:中国收紧对公民社会控制〉,2015年5月8日,https://www.hrw.org/zh-hans/news/2015/05/11/270354

[2] “China: Proposed Cybersecurity Law Will Bolster Censorship,” Human Rights Watch news release, August 4, 2015, https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/08/04/china-proposed-cybersecurity-law-wil... 注2:〈中国:网络安全立法将助长言论审查〉,人权观察新闻稿,2015年8月4日,https://www.hrw.org/zh-hans/news/2015/08/12/280173

[3] Human Rights Watch, “Race to the Bottom”: Corporate Complicity in Chinese Internet Censorship, August 2006, http://www.hrw.org/reports/2006/china0806/china0806webwcover.pdf.  注3:人权观察,〈趋劣竞争:企业掖助中国网络审查〉,2006年8月,http://www.hrw.org/reports/2006/china0806/china0806webwcover.pdf

This is a translation of a Human Rights Watch letter "To the CEOs of technology firms participating in the US-China Internet Industry Forum:". See more at: https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/supporting_resources/hrw_open_letter_re_us-china_internet_industry_forum.pdf

 

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星期一, 8月 03, 2020

Announcing the Release of GreatFire Appmaker

GreatFire (https://en.greatfire.org/), a China-focused censorship monitoring organization, is proud to announce that we have developed and released a new anti-censorship tool that will enable any blocked media outlet, blogger, human rights group, or civil society organization to evade censors and get their content onto the phones of millions of readers and supporters in China and other countries that censor the Internet.

GreatFire has built an Android mobile app creator, called “GreatFire AppMaker”, that can be used by organizations to unblock their content for users in China and other countries. Organizations can visit a website (https://appmaker.greatfire.org/) which will compile an app that is branded with the organization’s own logo and will feature their own, formerly blocked content. The app will also contain a special, censorship-circumventing web browser so that users can access the uncensored World Wide Web. The apps will use multiple strategies, including machine learning, to evade advanced censorship tactics employed by the Chinese authorities.  This project will work equally well in other countries that have China-like censorship restrictions. For both organizations and end users, the apps will be free, fast, and extremely easy to use.

This project was inspired by China-based GreatFire’s first-hand experience with our own FreeBrowser app (https://freebrowser.org/en) and desire to help small NGOs who may not have the in-house expertise to circumvent Chinese censorship. GreatFire’s anti-censorship tools have worked in China when others do not. FreeBrowser directs Chinese internet users to normally censored stories from the app’s start page (http://manyvoices.news/).

星期五, 7月 24, 2020

Apple, anticompetition, and censorship

On July 20, 2020, GreatFire wrote to all 13 members of the Subcommittee on Antitrust, Commercial and Administrative Law of the U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, requesting a thorough examination into Apple’s practice of censorship of its App Store, and an investigation into how the company collaborates with the Chinese authorities to maintain its unique position as one of the few foreign tech companies operating profitably in the Chinese digital market.  

This letter was sent a week before Apple CEO TIm Cook will be called for questioning in front of the Subcommittee on Antitrust, Commercial and Administrative Law. The CEOs of Amazon, Google and Facebook will also be questioned on July 27, as part of the Committee’s ongoing investigation into competition in the digital marketplace.

This hearing offers an opportunity to detail to the Subcommittee how Apple uses its closed operating ecosystem to not only abuse its market position but also to deprive certain users, most notably those in China, of their right to download and use apps related to privacy, secure communication, and censorship circumvention.

We hope that U.S. House representatives agree with our view that Apple should not be allowed to do elsewhere what would be considered as unacceptable in the U.S. Chinese citizens are not second class citizens. Private companies such as Apple compromise themselves and their self-proclaimed values of freedom and privacy when they collaborate with the Chinese government and its censors.

星期一, 6月 10, 2019

苹果审查中国西藏的信息

苹果在涉及西藏的审查方面有着悠久历史。 2009年,据计算机世界网透露 ,与达赖喇嘛有关的几个应用程序在苹果的中国区应用商店中不存在。这些应用的开发者未收到他们的应用被删除的通知。当面对这些审查制度时,苹果发言人只是说该公司将“继续遵守当地法律”。

2017年12月,在中国的一次会议上,当被问及与中国当局合作审查苹果应用商店时,蒂姆·库克 宣称

“所以你的选择是参与进去,还是站在局外,吼叫着事情应当怎样?我自己的看法非常强烈,你得进入赛场,因为没有任何东西会从局外发生改变。"

自苹果公司首次因与中国当局合作以遏制已被边缘化的声音而被批评的十年间,情况发生了什么变化?苹果继续严格遵守中国当局的审查令。蒂姆库克什么时候会期望他的公司能帮助在中国带来积极的变化?

根据生成的数据 https://applecensorship.com,Apple现在已经审查了在中国应用商店中29个西藏的热门应用程序。关于新闻,宗教研究,旅游甚至游戏的西藏主题应用程序正在被苹果审查。最下方附有完整的审查应用列表。

“苹果的领导力隐藏在他们审查应用程序以遵守模糊的'中国当地法律'的借口,但他们的行为缺乏任何透明度。通过从中国苹果应用商店删除藏文和其他许多应用程序,苹果阻碍了藏人获取信息和自由表达自己的能力,这是国际法下的一项基本人权。“ TibCERT(西藏计算机应急准备小组)的响应协调员Dorjee Phuntsok说道。 他们与GreatFire合作对被屏蔽的应用程序进行了分析。

   2019年1月,GreatFire推出了applecensorship.com。在那时,GreatFire联合创始人马丁约翰逊指出:“苹果公司在其透明度报告中没有分享有关应用商店审查的信息 - 该项目强制透明度。蒂姆库克可以随心所欲地说苹果在中国做了或没有做什么,但 applecensorship.com 提供了可以实际看到苹果实施审查原始数据的途径。

分析苹果在中国审查的iOS应用程序

有许多应用程序由藏人或为藏人制作,苹果正在审查中国区应用商店中的许多应用程序。了解某些应用程序被阻止的方式和原因以及这些决策背后的基本原理非常重要。为了解这一点,TibCERT(西藏应急准备小组)对在中国应用商店中被审查的藏文应用程序进行了分析。该研究使用关键字搜索藏文应用程序,然后使用GreatFire提供的应用程序审查平台。

TibCERT分析了119个以藏语为主题的iOS应用程序。使用“西藏”,“藏人”,“达赖喇嘛”,“佛教”,“藏传佛教”,等关键词搜索苹果应用商店时,可以找到下面列出的应用程序。这些应用程序分为五大类:“宗教或文化”,“媒体/政治”,“娱乐”,“工具”和“教育”。

星期四, 6月 06, 2019

重点关注苹果在中国审查实践的报告

最新的 数字版权企业责任指数排名 就公司和政府需要做些什么来提出建议,以改善全球互联网用户的人权保护。数字版权排名(RDR)旨在通过为公司尊重和保护用户权利制定全球标准和激励措施,以促进互联网上的言论自由和隐私权。

在他们的2019年责任指数中,RDR着眼于24家世界上最重要的互联网公司在言论自由和隐私方面的政策,并强调了那些尚需努力和已经取得改进的公司。 RDR指出:

透明度不足使私人政党,政府和公司本身更容易通过网络言论滥用权力,并规避责任。

特别是,该报告强调了苹果如何滥用其网络言论的权力,并在中国指出这一点。根据该报告,苹果公司在面对政府当局提出的要求时,并未披露其从App Store中删除内容的数据。

虽然[苹果]披露了有关政府限制帐户请求的数据,但它没有披露有关内容删除请求的数据,例如从苹果应用商店删除应用程序的请求。苹果公司对其影响言论自由的政策和做法讳莫如深,这让它的排名低于此类别的所有其他美国公司。

该报告为政府提出了明智而感性的建议。然而,这些建议还强调了与中国政府进行这些讨论是多么的困难。

RDR 建议政府要求公司的透明度并保持透明度。中国当局采取相反的做法 - 他们不希望在这些问题上保持透明度,因为它突显了他们不希望公众了解的信息。当局不希望公司透明,他们可能直接指示Apple不发布他们正删除的内容列表。

苹果可能真的认为他们必须遵守中国的法律条文。或者他们也可能愿意分享有关App Store中被审查内容的信息,但有碍于被中国当局束手束脚。苹果还可能会利用这种情况作为他们打击中国言论自由的掩护。无论Apple的真实动机如何,透明度都能够并已经被强加给他们。

在2019年1月,GreatFire发布了 applecensorship.com。该项目监控Apple在公司运营的每个市场中对App Store的审查。应用程序的可用性测试由网站访问者进行。截至今天,用户生成的测试已经确定了 超过1100个 在中国应用商店中不可用的应用。在中国受审查的应用程序包括那些涉及宗教,新闻,隐私和翻墙的应用程序。通过审查有助于规避审查限制的应用程序,苹果确实的让中国人无法自由访问信息。苹果的中国用户或许认为他们买到的是一流的设备 - 但可以肯定的是,该公司将他们视为二等信息公民。

RDR建议苹果对言论自由的限制保持透明,并公布有关公司因政府要求而删除内容所采取行动的数据。我们邀苹果审核我们在 applecensorship.com 上公开发布的数据,并根据中国当局的指示突出显示已删除应用的情况。

星期四, 11月 30, 2017

关于在中国苹果商店被审查的那674个软件

苹果对中国区的审查行为敞开了大门 - 但这似乎只是冰山一角。
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