Apple blocked CNNIC CA months after MITM attacks

In March of this year, Google found unauthorized digital certificates for several Google domains. The root certificate authority for these domains was the China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC). CNNIC was controlled by the Chinese government through the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and is now under the management of the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC). CNNIC was recognized by all major browsers as a trusted Certificate Authority. If CNNIC signs a fake certificate used in a man-in-the-middle attack, no browser will warn of any unusual activity unless the certificate is pinned.

After Google found these unauthorized certificates, both Google and Firefox revoked its trust in CNNIC a few days later, a development we at GreatFire.org have adovacting for since 2013. Apple and Microsoft on the other hand, did not revoke their trust in CNNIC, nor did they make any announcements regarding the security compromise.

In June 2015, Apple quietly published a support article titled “About the security partial trust allow list”. This announcement was made quietly and as far as we can see was not picked up in the media. We did not notice this change until this week. Apple states in the support article that “an intermediate certificate was incorrectly issued by the certificate authority CNNIC. This issue was addressed through the addition of a mechanism to partially trust a CA by trusting only a set of certificates.” This is the same strategy that has been taken by Google and Firefox to block CNNIC.

Apple also published the full domain list signed by CNNIC which might be interesting to researchers.

Microsoft is the only major browser operator left that still trusts CNNIC-issued CAs. Microsoft pointed to a help article when requested for comment. Microsoft didn’t indicate any action against CNNIC in the article. We urge Microsoft to revoke CNNIC following Google, Mozilla and Apple's lead and limit CNNIC's authority to the domain list published by Apple. 

评论

更多博客文章

订阅 email
显示 博客 | Google+ | Twitter | 全部 的消息. 使用 RSS 订阅我们的博客。

星期一, 8月 03, 2020

Announcing the Release of GreatFire Appmaker

GreatFire (https://en.greatfire.org/), a China-focused censorship monitoring organization, is proud to announce that we have developed and released a new anti-censorship tool that will enable any blocked media outlet, blogger, human rights group, or civil society organization to evade censors and get their content onto the phones of millions of readers and supporters in China and other countries that censor the Internet.

GreatFire has built an Android mobile app creator, called “GreatFire AppMaker”, that can be used by organizations to unblock their content for users in China and other countries. Organizations can visit a website (https://appmaker.greatfire.org/) which will compile an app that is branded with the organization’s own logo and will feature their own, formerly blocked content. The app will also contain a special, censorship-circumventing web browser so that users can access the uncensored World Wide Web. The apps will use multiple strategies, including machine learning, to evade advanced censorship tactics employed by the Chinese authorities.  This project will work equally well in other countries that have China-like censorship restrictions. For both organizations and end users, the apps will be free, fast, and extremely easy to use.

This project was inspired by China-based GreatFire’s first-hand experience with our own FreeBrowser app (https://freebrowser.org/en) and desire to help small NGOs who may not have the in-house expertise to circumvent Chinese censorship. GreatFire’s anti-censorship tools have worked in China when others do not. FreeBrowser directs Chinese internet users to normally censored stories from the app’s start page (http://manyvoices.news/).

星期五, 7月 24, 2020

Apple, anticompetition, and censorship

On July 20, 2020, GreatFire wrote to all 13 members of the Subcommittee on Antitrust, Commercial and Administrative Law of the U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, requesting a thorough examination into Apple’s practice of censorship of its App Store, and an investigation into how the company collaborates with the Chinese authorities to maintain its unique position as one of the few foreign tech companies operating profitably in the Chinese digital market.  

This letter was sent a week before Apple CEO TIm Cook will be called for questioning in front of the Subcommittee on Antitrust, Commercial and Administrative Law. The CEOs of Amazon, Google and Facebook will also be questioned on July 27, as part of the Committee’s ongoing investigation into competition in the digital marketplace.

This hearing offers an opportunity to detail to the Subcommittee how Apple uses its closed operating ecosystem to not only abuse its market position but also to deprive certain users, most notably those in China, of their right to download and use apps related to privacy, secure communication, and censorship circumvention.

We hope that U.S. House representatives agree with our view that Apple should not be allowed to do elsewhere what would be considered as unacceptable in the U.S. Chinese citizens are not second class citizens. Private companies such as Apple compromise themselves and their self-proclaimed values of freedom and privacy when they collaborate with the Chinese government and its censors.

星期一, 6月 10, 2019

苹果审查中国西藏的信息

苹果在涉及西藏的审查方面有着悠久历史。 2009年,据计算机世界网透露 ,与达赖喇嘛有关的几个应用程序在苹果的中国区应用商店中不存在。这些应用的开发者未收到他们的应用被删除的通知。当面对这些审查制度时,苹果发言人只是说该公司将“继续遵守当地法律”。

2017年12月,在中国的一次会议上,当被问及与中国当局合作审查苹果应用商店时,蒂姆·库克 宣称

“所以你的选择是参与进去,还是站在局外,吼叫着事情应当怎样?我自己的看法非常强烈,你得进入赛场,因为没有任何东西会从局外发生改变。"

自苹果公司首次因与中国当局合作以遏制已被边缘化的声音而被批评的十年间,情况发生了什么变化?苹果继续严格遵守中国当局的审查令。蒂姆库克什么时候会期望他的公司能帮助在中国带来积极的变化?

根据生成的数据 https://applecensorship.com,Apple现在已经审查了在中国应用商店中29个西藏的热门应用程序。关于新闻,宗教研究,旅游甚至游戏的西藏主题应用程序正在被苹果审查。最下方附有完整的审查应用列表。

“苹果的领导力隐藏在他们审查应用程序以遵守模糊的'中国当地法律'的借口,但他们的行为缺乏任何透明度。通过从中国苹果应用商店删除藏文和其他许多应用程序,苹果阻碍了藏人获取信息和自由表达自己的能力,这是国际法下的一项基本人权。“ TibCERT(西藏计算机应急准备小组)的响应协调员Dorjee Phuntsok说道。 他们与GreatFire合作对被屏蔽的应用程序进行了分析。

   2019年1月,GreatFire推出了applecensorship.com。在那时,GreatFire联合创始人马丁约翰逊指出:“苹果公司在其透明度报告中没有分享有关应用商店审查的信息 - 该项目强制透明度。蒂姆库克可以随心所欲地说苹果在中国做了或没有做什么,但 applecensorship.com 提供了可以实际看到苹果实施审查原始数据的途径。

分析苹果在中国审查的iOS应用程序

有许多应用程序由藏人或为藏人制作,苹果正在审查中国区应用商店中的许多应用程序。了解某些应用程序被阻止的方式和原因以及这些决策背后的基本原理非常重要。为了解这一点,TibCERT(西藏应急准备小组)对在中国应用商店中被审查的藏文应用程序进行了分析。该研究使用关键字搜索藏文应用程序,然后使用GreatFire提供的应用程序审查平台。

TibCERT分析了119个以藏语为主题的iOS应用程序。使用“西藏”,“藏人”,“达赖喇嘛”,“佛教”,“藏传佛教”,等关键词搜索苹果应用商店时,可以找到下面列出的应用程序。这些应用程序分为五大类:“宗教或文化”,“媒体/政治”,“娱乐”,“工具”和“教育”。

星期四, 6月 06, 2019

重点关注苹果在中国审查实践的报告

最新的 数字版权企业责任指数排名 就公司和政府需要做些什么来提出建议,以改善全球互联网用户的人权保护。数字版权排名(RDR)旨在通过为公司尊重和保护用户权利制定全球标准和激励措施,以促进互联网上的言论自由和隐私权。

在他们的2019年责任指数中,RDR着眼于24家世界上最重要的互联网公司在言论自由和隐私方面的政策,并强调了那些尚需努力和已经取得改进的公司。 RDR指出:

透明度不足使私人政党,政府和公司本身更容易通过网络言论滥用权力,并规避责任。

特别是,该报告强调了苹果如何滥用其网络言论的权力,并在中国指出这一点。根据该报告,苹果公司在面对政府当局提出的要求时,并未披露其从App Store中删除内容的数据。

虽然[苹果]披露了有关政府限制帐户请求的数据,但它没有披露有关内容删除请求的数据,例如从苹果应用商店删除应用程序的请求。苹果公司对其影响言论自由的政策和做法讳莫如深,这让它的排名低于此类别的所有其他美国公司。

该报告为政府提出了明智而感性的建议。然而,这些建议还强调了与中国政府进行这些讨论是多么的困难。

RDR 建议政府要求公司的透明度并保持透明度。中国当局采取相反的做法 - 他们不希望在这些问题上保持透明度,因为它突显了他们不希望公众了解的信息。当局不希望公司透明,他们可能直接指示Apple不发布他们正删除的内容列表。

苹果可能真的认为他们必须遵守中国的法律条文。或者他们也可能愿意分享有关App Store中被审查内容的信息,但有碍于被中国当局束手束脚。苹果还可能会利用这种情况作为他们打击中国言论自由的掩护。无论Apple的真实动机如何,透明度都能够并已经被强加给他们。

在2019年1月,GreatFire发布了 applecensorship.com。该项目监控Apple在公司运营的每个市场中对App Store的审查。应用程序的可用性测试由网站访问者进行。截至今天,用户生成的测试已经确定了 超过1100个 在中国应用商店中不可用的应用。在中国受审查的应用程序包括那些涉及宗教,新闻,隐私和翻墙的应用程序。通过审查有助于规避审查限制的应用程序,苹果确实的让中国人无法自由访问信息。苹果的中国用户或许认为他们买到的是一流的设备 - 但可以肯定的是,该公司将他们视为二等信息公民。

RDR建议苹果对言论自由的限制保持透明,并公布有关公司因政府要求而删除内容所采取行动的数据。我们邀苹果审核我们在 applecensorship.com 上公开发布的数据,并根据中国当局的指示突出显示已删除应用的情况。

星期四, 11月 30, 2017

关于在中国苹果商店被审查的那674个软件

苹果对中国区的审查行为敞开了大门 - 但这似乎只是冰山一角。
使用 RSS 订阅我们的博客。

评论

It was a wonderful chance to visit this kind of site and I am happy to know. thank you so much for giving us a chance to have this opportunity! I will be back soon for updates.

# Writer @ online http://essayservices.org

This is an awesome article. I've been here for the first time and found that your site is well informative and well organized. Keep up the sharing.

Resume writer @ http://resumeplus.us/

wefn. nwlk nkfw
Happy Diwali 2015

mn dllsjk ek ,jsn,kj slkjwk
Happy Diwali 2015 Wishes

j bfjbe kljl fhbk .k n.h
Happy New Year 2016

sjhb isdbk sdkjc sdkl ls
Shaandaar Full Movie Online

You all lovePlayBox HDApp

Car carriers are required to be used in different dimensions so that anyone can adjust to select appropriate moving service-based Packers and Movers in Bangalore

extensive comprehensive extensive variety that they are preparing to shift to different destinations
Packers and Movers in Pune
Packers and Movers in Hyderabad
Packers and Movers in Mumbai

Nice Information in the post

SJVN Limited Recruitment 2016

Super
imo for pc
imo for windows
imo .im
imo for pc

This is really interesting, You are a very skilled blogger.

I have joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your magnificent post.
Also, I've shared your site in my social networks!

Also visit my site :: happy new year 2016 images

What's Going down i'm new to this, I stumbled upon this I've found It
positively helpful and it has aided me out loads.

I hope to give a contribution & assist other customers like its aided me.

Great job.

my webpage: happy new year wishes messages

I was curious if you ever thought of changing the structure
of your website? Its very well written; I love
what youve got to say. But maybe you could a little more in the way
of content so people could connect with it better. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having 1 or two pictures.
Maybe you could space it out better?

Feel free to surf to my homepage :: Happy New Year Images Download Free

Your friendly marketplace for Movers and Car Transportation in India
https://www.makingmove.com/

AgaricPro Obat Herbal Untuk Bermacam Penyakitadalah salah satu obat herbal yang sangat ampuh untuk mengobati berbagai penyakit seperti Obat Sinusitis. terbuat dari ramuan herbal yang sangat berkualitas dan terjamin, dapat juga menyembuhkan penyakit seperti penyakit Agaricpro | Obat Maag. Jika Anda tidak menyukai obat kimia, jangan khawatir karena produk kami terbebas dari bahan kimia, jadi AgaricPro | Obat Asma dapat disembuhkan dengan produk kami. Produk best agaric AgaricPro Sebagai Solusi Untuk Hidup Lebih Sehat, AgaricPro Untuk Mengatasi Berbagai Macam Penyakit dengan kualitas yang sangat tinggi ini mampu menyembuhkan penyakit-penyakit yang ganas seperti penyakit AgaricPro | Obat Hematuria. Banyak orang yang sudah menggunakan produk kami dan memberikan testimoni positif, karena produk kami memberikan efek yang sangat besar untuk menyembuhkan penyakit AgaricPro | Obat Asam Urat. Produk kami bisa didapatkan di Tasik Store. Jika Anda mempunyai keluhan tentang kewanitaan, maka Obat Keputihan Crystal X adalah solusinya. tidak hanya penyakit AgaricPro | Obat Stroke tetapi juga bisa menyembuhkan penyakit AgaricPro | Obat Liver. Jika anda mempunyai keluhan wanita, seperti keputihan maka Nes V | Obat Keputihan sulusinya untuk Penyakit Wanita dan Obatnya . Mulailah dari sekarang untuk hidup Healthy Life Indonesia . Segeralah lakukan pengobatan jika Anda mempunyai keluhan AgariPro |Obat Kurang Darah , karena jika dibiarkan penyakit Anda akan semakin parah. AgaricPro | Obat Hernia dan juga AgaricPro | Obat Kolesterol. Dengan kualitas yang aman ampuh dan terjamin bisa menyembuhkan berbagai penyakit Jantung, Maag, Rematik. Obat Penyakit Asam Urat Ampuh. Obat Mujarab Maag Kronis Alami

nice thanking you

new year images

Golden Globe Awards 2016 Live Stream || @ On January 10, 2016 set the date for the 73rd Annual Golden Globe Awards by The Hollywood Foreign Press.

http://goldenglobeawards2016livestream.com/

Justin Bieber Tickets Tours & Concert Updates
http://justinbieberconcert.co/

Knock! Knock! Knock!!! Hello……!!!! We are back with a big bang award show which is Golden Globe Award 2016. Great show, some great people, beautiful and spectacularly talented actresses/actors and lots of fun, entertainment, and suspense’re to be revealed.

This award has been continuing since 1943. Group of writers gathered together to frame the Hollywood Foreign Press Association and made liberally distributed award named Golden globe Award where they play momentous role in film making. The first award was being honored on best achievement in 1943 filmmaking and was held in January 1944, at the 20th Century –Fox studios. Successively, every year ceremonies were held in different venues for decades.

Golden Globe 2016 Live Stream||@The 73rd annual Golden Globes Awards Open ceremony Live Stream by The Hollywood

Foreign Press, On January 10, 2016 from Beverly Hilton Hotel.

The Golden Globes first Academy Awards 2016

http://goldenglobeawards2016live.com/

FOR UPCOMING MOVIE: http://moviejon.com/

The Golden Globe Awards Live Stream will take place at the Beverly Hilton Hotel on January 10. But first, the

nominees must be announced! The nominations live stream is expected to begin at 8:15 a.m. Eastern Time. Stay

tuned! Angela Bassett, Chloe Grace Moretz, Dennis Quaid, and America Ferrera will all participate in the event,

revealing the nominees in more than 20 different categories spanning film and television. They’ll be joined by

Corinne Foxx, the daughter of Jamie Foxx, who was recently announced as Miss Golden Globe for the 73rd annual

Golden Globes ceremony. Bassett is a Golden Globes winner, as is Ferrera, while Quaid is a former nominee.

When everyone’s afraid of superintelligent machines taking over the world and no one can run a The Golden Globes

first Academy Awards presentation was held on May 16, 1929, at a private dinner at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel

with an audience of about 270 people The post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel The cost of guest

tickets for that night’s ceremony was $5 dollars [$69 as of 2015] Fifteen statuettes. And Now 2016 HFPA: 73rd

Annual Golden Globe Awards – Beverly Hilton with host Ricky Gervais. – Sunday, January 10, 2016 .

thanks for the post
latest bank jobs

Republic Day 2016 Images
http://festivalsbag.com/

It looks the way of your writing skill of article. I like the strngth of explaining of your topic very well,

I have shared your post to my FB Group and at India Post Recruitment

“an intermediate certificate was incorrectly issued by the certificate authority CNNIC. This issue was addressed through the addition of a mechanism to partially trust a CA by trusting only a set of certificates.” This is the same strategy that has been taken by Google and Firefox to block CNNIC.Application Form 2016

When gone through your blog for the first time, I found this to be quite interesting. LOVELY!!!. And this is infact a good inspiration for all the fellow readers. Keep up your sharing the best.

http://essayservices.org/

Thank you so much for sharing this great blog.Very inspiring and helpful too.Hope you continue to share more of your ideas.
telangana e pass
Andhra Pradesh epass
epass application status
epass
hey! thank your your write loved it tv buying guide
ts psc recruitment
ts psc news
rajuginne
lic login

nice information and also its helpful to who are looking for Employment News 2016

thanks
imo for pc

download imo your welcome

lovely article. thanks for sharing. Very well siad buddy...
sad hindi shayari

页面

添加新评论

Filtered HTML

  • 自动将网址与电子邮件地址转变为链接。
  • 允许的HTML标签:<a> <em> <strong> <cite> <blockquote> <code> <ul> <ol> <li> <dl> <dt> <dd>
  • 自动断行和分段。

Plain text

  • 不允许HTML标记。
  • 自动将网址与电子邮件地址转变为链接。
  • 自动断行和分段。
By submitting this form, you accept the Mollom privacy policy.