证据显示CNNIC和中国网信办是中间人攻击的幕后黑手

 

自从2013年,我们曾多次呼吁各大软件厂商撤销CNNIC颁发的证书。值得注意的是,我们提出这个问题的时候,我们报道了中国网信办(CAC)在谷歌,微软的Outlook,苹果,雅虎和Github上进行中间人(MITM)攻击。许多主流媒体在此前也纷纷报道了这些安全问题,在3月24日,Ars Technica的报道了谷歌宣布他们有确凿的证据表明CNNIC(中国互联网络信息中心)是使谷歌遭受MITM攻击的幕后黑手。

2014年十月,我们的博文

CNNIC是中国互联网信息中心,属工信部管理。据报道,CNNIC曾审查网络(并试图隐瞒)、发布恶意软件、安全记录不良。中国的技术型网民多年来一直抵制将CNNIC作为可信任的根证书。在2013年一月Github在中国遭受攻击后,我们公开呼吁取消CNNIC作为根证书的资格。鉴于近期中国接连发生的中间人(MITM)的攻击,为了保护中国和世界各地用户的隐私,我们再次呼吁撤销CNNIC证书颁发机构。

今年10月份,中国当局对苹果iCloud、谷歌、微软Outlook以及雅虎发动了中间人攻击。而CNNIC扮演了默许支持或积极配合的角色。

CNNIC是“中国信息社会的基础设施建设者、运营者与管理者”。GreatFire证实,最近几次的中间人攻击来自中国互联网的中枢。针对雅虎与谷歌的攻击在互联网中枢上持续了数周。

而在今天我们就有了谷歌展示的具体的证据,证明CNNIC(或者包括CAC)是MITM攻击的确同谋。谷歌在自己的博文中声称:

在3月20日,星期五,我们发现CNNIC颁发了多个针对谷歌域名的用于中间人攻击的证书。这个名为MCS集团的中级证书颁发机构发行了多个谷歌域名的假证书,而这些中级证书则来自CNNIC

CNNIC的证书包含了主要的根证书和伪造证书,它们被几乎所有的浏览器和操作系统信任。由于public-key pinning机制,Windows和OS X以及Linux版的Chrome、ChromeOS和Firefox 33会拒绝这些证书,尽管伪造证书对其他网站可能是信任的。

我们很高兴谷歌,微软和Mozilla已经采取了措把这些在攻击中使用的中间证书列入黑名单.。Ars Technica的故事提供了Mozilla的声明更多的细节。苹果公司还没有做出关于这个问题的公开声明。显然,他还需要更多的行动。CNNIC在这些平台还是被信任的,中国当局将来仍然可以用它来签署其它中间证书发动MITM攻击。我们再次呼吁谷歌,Mozilla、微软和苹果应立即撤销信任CNNIC,以保障中国和全球用户的数据安全。

 

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星期四, 11月 30, 2017

关于在中国苹果商店被审查的那674个软件

苹果对中国区的审查行为敞开了大门 - 但这似乎只是冰山一角。

星期二, 5月 23, 2017

Is China establishing cyber sovereignty in the United States?

Last week Twitter came under attack from a DDoS attack orchestrated by the Chinese authorities. While such attacks are not uncommon for websites like Twitter, this one proved unusual. While the Chinese authorities use the Great Firewall to block harmful content from reaching its citizens, it now uses DDoS attacks to take down content that appears on websites beyond its borders. For the Chinese authorities, it is not simply good enough to “protect” the interests of Chinese citizens at home - in their view of cyber sovereignty, any content that might harm China’s interests must be removed, regardless of where the website is located.

And so last week the Chinese authorities determined that Twitter was the target. In particular, the authorities targeted the Twitter account for Guo Wengui (https://twitter.com/KwokMiles), the rebel billionaire who is slowly leaking information about corrupt Chinese government officials via his Twitter account and through his YouTube videos. Guo appeared to ramp up his whistle-blowing efforts last week and the Chinese authorities, in turn, ramped up theirs.

via https://twitter.com/KwokMiles/status/863689935798374401

星期一, 12月 12, 2016

面对中国,Google 还打算终结网络审查吗?

三年前,施密特宣布谷歌将在十年内终结网络审查。当时我在卫报发表文章,批评谷歌的时程太长,并指出他们其实有可能在十天内达成目标。

星期四, 11月 24, 2016

Facebook: Please, not like this

Facebook is considering launching a censorship tool that would enable the world’s biggest social network to “enter” the China market. Sadly, nobody will be surprised by anything that Mark Zuckerberg decides to do in order to enter the China market. With such low expectations, Facebook is poised to usurp Apple as China’s favorite foreign intelligence gathering partner. If the company launches in China using this strategy they will also successfully erase any bargaining power that other media organizations may hold with the Chinese authorities.

星期二, 7月 05, 2016

GreatFire.org 现在开始测试VPN在中国的速度和稳定性

在中国有一个普遍观念,如果你有一个可以使用的VPN,那么你应该保持沉默。就信息自由而言,这种观念的问题在于获取知识竟成了一种秘密。今天,我们推出一个项目,希望能够摧毁这种模型。

我们最新的网站,翻墙中心,目的在于实时提供那些能够在中国使用的翻墙方案的信息和数据。在2011年以来我们就已经开始收集在中国被屏蔽的网站,现在我们也将增加那些可用的VPN和其他翻墙工具。

我们发布翻墙中心主要有四个目的。

我们的首要目标是助长使用翻墙工具的国人的数量。通过分享我们这些工具的信息和数据,我们希望对更广泛的受众展示那些工具时可以使用的。

我们的第二个目标是通过带来工具性能的透明化来提升中国用户的翻墙体验。我们将会测试工具的速度(流行网站的加载速度)和稳定性(流行网站加载成功的程度)。

我们开发速度测试的目的是要真实反映用户的体验。当用户在网站测速时,浏览器在后台会从10个世界上最流行的网站上下载一些资源文件。根据Alexa排名,这些网站分别是Google, Facebook, YouTube, Baidu, Amazon, Yahoo, Wikipedia, QQ, Twitter and Microsoft Live。速度的结果是简单的计算下载文件文件的大小和下载所需的时间。我们同样也会验证下载的文件是否完整。如果文件的内容是错误的或者在40秒内无法完成下载,我们会标记为失败。这个数据被我们用来生成另一个重要指标-稳定性。

其他的速度测试工具仅仅是通过发送数据到它们自己的服务器来测量上传和下载的速度。这种数据无法反应用户的体验,因为正常的浏览器通常会频繁的发送一系列的请求(而不是上传或下载一个大文件)到许多的服务器,而不止是一个。

我们的第二个指标 - 稳定性 - 是其他的服务通常不会测试的。一个健康的互联网连接应该达到100%的稳定性,除非有人在测试中把网线拔了。但是在中国使用翻墙工具却不是这样。任何时候连接都有可能变得不稳定或十分缓慢。根据请求的大小,最终的地点和代理的方式,一些请求有可能会失败。比较服务的稳定性要比比较速度更加重要。

你可以测试任意的翻墙工具,列表之外的也可以。中国的VPN用户也可以测试他们的工具,测试结果也会添加到数据库中。这些数据都将会对所有人开放。实时的在中国测试是非常重要的,因为VPN随时都可能被封锁或解封。我们欢迎任何的关于测试过程的反馈。有技术能力的用户也可以通过审查我们的javascript代码来获悉我们的测试是如何工作的。

我们郑重的邀请翻墙工具的开发者们向我们提供测试过程的反馈。我们的第三个目标是帮助这些开发人员改进他们的产品,让更多的选择适用于中国的顾客。此外,越多的工具可以工作,就意味着中国当局对翻墙的打击就会越难。

中国的用户都知道,在过去的18个月中当局加紧了对翻墙工具的攻击。而翻墙中心将会吹响反击的号角。反其道而行之,让这不再成为秘密。我们要鼓励人们分享翻墙工具可以工作的信息。

我们的第四个目标就是要为GreatFire.org创造收益。目前GreatFire仍然依靠世界各地的热心人士和组织的捐款。我们希望减少对这些机构的依赖,并探寻GreatFire.org自给自足的道路。用户只需到翻墙中心就能购买任意一款我们目前在测试的付费工具。GreatFire将作为这些工具在中国的经销商,因此VPN供应商会给予我们每个零售的一部分。用户也不必在中国购买这些翻墙服务。

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