中国当局的使用数百万网民进行网络攻击

在2015年3月17日,我们和同伴的网站受到了大量的DDoS攻击。在此之前我们从未受到过如此严重的攻击. 这次攻击的特殊之处在于-我们发现是中国的政府劫持了全球数百万的互联网用户来发起了这次攻击.。我们相信这对于中国民众来说这是一个主要的网络安全和经济威胁。How did that get there?

在寻求了一些网络组织的帮助后 ,独立调查者通过分析我们的日志文件发现了如下的事实::

  • 近百万的网络用户在访问一些国内外网站的时候, 被随机的插入了一些代码用于攻击GreatFire.org的网站.

  • 百度统计脚本 (h.js) 是被用来触发攻击的手段之一。百度统计, 类似于 Google Analytics 国内外有许多网站正在使用它。任何用户在访问任何一个使用了百度统计或其他百度资源的网站时都被插入了代码。 这里有一个列表呈现了用于此次攻击的百度资源report.

  • 这个攻击代码没有根据地理位置进行判断,而是插入了所有的用户,这就意味着攻击者并非指定对中国用户攻击,同时也连累了世界各地的用户和网站。

  • 这些流量在他们到达百度服务器之前,也就是在从中国的入口处就被篡改了,这些恶意行为的一致性指出中国网信办 (CAC)直接参与了这些攻击。.

更多的技术细节可以访问这个研究报告—— “利用百度来使用户发起拒绝服务攻击”.

GitHub 受到 DDoS 攻击

在3月25日,中国当局又用了同样的手段来DDoS攻击了GitHub — 我们的页面是主要目标。为了缓和攻击, 我们镜像了我们的 GitHub 库并告知用户来直接访问页面,攻击者们又把攻击切换到我们的 GitHub page 上。

GitHub 描述:

我们正在亲身经历github历史上最大的一次 DDoS (distributed denial of service)攻击。 攻击开始于 3月 26日 星期二 UTC 2时, 涉及了范围广泛的攻击媒介组合. 包括了我们以前看到过的所有攻击媒介以及复杂的新技术并使用了无辜的浏览器浏览器和无关的用户通过巨大的流量进攻了github.com.基于我们收到的报告, 我们相信此次攻击是为了让我们删除“一些特殊类别的内容“.

我们相信 “一些特殊类别的内容”指的就是 GreatFire.org 的  GitHub 页面. 为了抵抗来自CAC的恶意脚本注入DDoS攻击, GitHub 修改了 https://github.com/greatfire/ 来给用户显示一个信息: "WARNING: malicious javascript detected on this domain".(警告:在此域名上侦测到恶意脚本)

访问我们 GitHub 页面的网址( https://github.com/greatfire/) 是被硬编码进恶意脚本里面的。我们的页面仍然可以访问,只有那些暴露于恶意代码的用户在访问其他网站时才会看到警告提示信息。GitHub的攻击仍然在进行,约1%的国外用户仍然在访问具有百度元素的网站时被注入恶意代码。

 

事件的影响

我们的第一篇博文因为没有什么证据,所以并未对攻击者下结论。 但基于上述的对Github被攻击的技术论证和研究的细节,我们确信国网信办(CAC)应该对这些攻击负责。.

劫持数百万世界各地无辜的互联网用户的电脑数特别引人注目,因为这说明中国当局全然不顾中国乃至国际的互联网法律。用户对于被利用来攻击毫无办法。鲁炜的声明,中国网信办的领导,关注并总结了我们的想法和这些攻击:

互联网是全球共用的信息平台,是你中有我、我中有你的“利益共同体”,面对网络犯罪、黑客攻击、侵犯隐私等全球性挑战,任何国家都不可能在安全问题上“独善其身”。在网络空间里,牺牲他国安全来维护本国安全难以为继,排斥他国诉求去谋取本国利益也不会长久。中国也是黑客攻击的受害国,我们始终坚决反对任何形式的网络攻击行为,希望在网络安全、网络反恐、网络执法、个人隐私保护等方面,与世界各国一道深化交流合作,共同筑牢网络安全底线.

有意思的是,恶意代码注入只能是在中国骨干网上完成,甚至是网信办都不能直接发起攻击, 他们对中国的网络负责,但他们甚至都不知道发生了些什么. 这些攻击就发生在网信办的眼皮底下而且还必须要获得鲁炜的批准。

鲁炜和中国网信办很明显的升级了他们控制信息的战术. 防火长城由一个被动的过滤器变成了一个具有侵略性的主动的武器。 这是一个非常可怕的发展,这种行动的影响将会延伸至互联网的每一个角落。简明的说,当局已经以前是对中国,现在到全球互联网用户都要执行严格的审查制度。中国网信办已经能够有足够的技术和资金支持来便捷的迅速的对全球任何一个地方的任何网站发起DDoS攻击。

这些攻击也充分说明了中国政府的短视. 武器化中国的互联网服务扼杀了中国企业家的全球化信心并加快了全球互联网碎片化。美国证券交易委员会已经要求微博解释审查是如何工作的,百度—一家在美国公开上市的公司,称可能在做同样的事情。   

我们正确预测了去年中国将要进行中间人攻击(MITM)来审查加密的网站。现在我们悲观的认为反对我们和Github的DDoS攻击更象一个是加大攻击国外互联网的信号,这样的攻击将会受到世界各国政府的批评和蔑视。

需要注意的是,尽管这个攻击如此严重, 我们的安桌版自由浏览器并没有受到影响,它每天仍然帮助了成千上万的中国用户翻越防火长城。

代表这些数百万的被操纵的不知情用户, 我们号召中国网信办立即结束这些DDoS攻击,并为他们公然无礼的和危险的行为道歉。

补充信息

在攻击开始之后,许多海外用户看到了警告信息并截图发步到了社交媒体上。

一个用户上传了一段视频到Youtube上,展示了当用户被恶意脚本劫持DDoS攻击了Github时发生了些什么。你也能够看到了Github尽力缓解了影响。

这里有一些有趣的细节是关于网信办改变了攻击方式来维持攻击Github。

一个早些时候的报告是无关防火长城的升级的说明是“在中国的每一台机器都有可能成为DDoS攻击无辜网站的一份子”和“他们的人民都是武器”。这看起来太乐观了,网信办让全球网民全部成为了武器。

 

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星期四, 11月 30, 2017

关于在中国苹果商店被审查的那674个软件

苹果对中国区的审查行为敞开了大门 - 但这似乎只是冰山一角。

星期二, 5月 23, 2017

Is China establishing cyber sovereignty in the United States?

Last week Twitter came under attack from a DDoS attack orchestrated by the Chinese authorities. While such attacks are not uncommon for websites like Twitter, this one proved unusual. While the Chinese authorities use the Great Firewall to block harmful content from reaching its citizens, it now uses DDoS attacks to take down content that appears on websites beyond its borders. For the Chinese authorities, it is not simply good enough to “protect” the interests of Chinese citizens at home - in their view of cyber sovereignty, any content that might harm China’s interests must be removed, regardless of where the website is located.

And so last week the Chinese authorities determined that Twitter was the target. In particular, the authorities targeted the Twitter account for Guo Wengui (https://twitter.com/KwokMiles), the rebel billionaire who is slowly leaking information about corrupt Chinese government officials via his Twitter account and through his YouTube videos. Guo appeared to ramp up his whistle-blowing efforts last week and the Chinese authorities, in turn, ramped up theirs.

via https://twitter.com/KwokMiles/status/863689935798374401

星期一, 12月 12, 2016

China is the obstacle to Google’s plan to end internet censorship

It’s been three years since Eric Schmidt proclaimed that Google would chart a course to ending online censorship within ten years. Now is a great time to check on Google’s progress, reassess the landscape, benchmark Google’s efforts against others who share the same goal, postulate on the China strategy and offer suggestions on how they might effectively move forward.

flowers on google china plaque

Flowers left outside Google China’s headquarters after its announcement it might leave the country in 2010. Photo: Wikicommons.

What has Google accomplished since November 2013?

The first thing they have accomplished is an entire rebranding of both Google (now Alphabet) and Google Ideas (now Jigsaw). Throughout this blog post, reference is made to both new and old company names.

Google has started to develop two main tools which they believe can help in the fight against censorship. Jigsaw’s DDoS protection service, Project Shield, is effectively preventing censorship-inspired DDoS attacks and recently helped to repel an attack on Brian Krebs’ blog. The service is similar to other anti-DDoS services developed by internet freedom champions and for-profit services like Cloudflare.

星期四, 11月 24, 2016

Facebook: Please, not like this

Facebook is considering launching a censorship tool that would enable the world’s biggest social network to “enter” the China market. Sadly, nobody will be surprised by anything that Mark Zuckerberg decides to do in order to enter the China market. With such low expectations, Facebook is poised to usurp Apple as China’s favorite foreign intelligence gathering partner. If the company launches in China using this strategy they will also successfully erase any bargaining power that other media organizations may hold with the Chinese authorities.

星期二, 7月 05, 2016

GreatFire.org 现在开始测试VPN在中国的速度和稳定性

在中国有一个普遍观念,如果你有一个可以使用的VPN,那么你应该保持沉默。就信息自由而言,这种观念的问题在于获取知识竟成了一种秘密。今天,我们推出一个项目,希望能够摧毁这种模型。

我们最新的网站,翻墙中心,目的在于实时提供那些能够在中国使用的翻墙方案的信息和数据。在2011年以来我们就已经开始收集在中国被屏蔽的网站,现在我们也将增加那些可用的VPN和其他翻墙工具。

我们发布翻墙中心主要有四个目的。

我们的首要目标是助长使用翻墙工具的国人的数量。通过分享我们这些工具的信息和数据,我们希望对更广泛的受众展示那些工具时可以使用的。

我们的第二个目标是通过带来工具性能的透明化来提升中国用户的翻墙体验。我们将会测试工具的速度(流行网站的加载速度)和稳定性(流行网站加载成功的程度)。

我们开发速度测试的目的是要真实反映用户的体验。当用户在网站测速时,浏览器在后台会从10个世界上最流行的网站上下载一些资源文件。根据Alexa排名,这些网站分别是Google, Facebook, YouTube, Baidu, Amazon, Yahoo, Wikipedia, QQ, Twitter and Microsoft Live。速度的结果是简单的计算下载文件文件的大小和下载所需的时间。我们同样也会验证下载的文件是否完整。如果文件的内容是错误的或者在40秒内无法完成下载,我们会标记为失败。这个数据被我们用来生成另一个重要指标-稳定性。

其他的速度测试工具仅仅是通过发送数据到它们自己的服务器来测量上传和下载的速度。这种数据无法反应用户的体验,因为正常的浏览器通常会频繁的发送一系列的请求(而不是上传或下载一个大文件)到许多的服务器,而不止是一个。

我们的第二个指标 - 稳定性 - 是其他的服务通常不会测试的。一个健康的互联网连接应该达到100%的稳定性,除非有人在测试中把网线拔了。但是在中国使用翻墙工具却不是这样。任何时候连接都有可能变得不稳定或十分缓慢。根据请求的大小,最终的地点和代理的方式,一些请求有可能会失败。比较服务的稳定性要比比较速度更加重要。

你可以测试任意的翻墙工具,列表之外的也可以。中国的VPN用户也可以测试他们的工具,测试结果也会添加到数据库中。这些数据都将会对所有人开放。实时的在中国测试是非常重要的,因为VPN随时都可能被封锁或解封。我们欢迎任何的关于测试过程的反馈。有技术能力的用户也可以通过审查我们的javascript代码来获悉我们的测试是如何工作的。

我们郑重的邀请翻墙工具的开发者们向我们提供测试过程的反馈。我们的第三个目标是帮助这些开发人员改进他们的产品,让更多的选择适用于中国的顾客。此外,越多的工具可以工作,就意味着中国当局对翻墙的打击就会越难。

中国的用户都知道,在过去的18个月中当局加紧了对翻墙工具的攻击。而翻墙中心将会吹响反击的号角。反其道而行之,让这不再成为秘密。我们要鼓励人们分享翻墙工具可以工作的信息。

我们的第四个目标就是要为GreatFire.org创造收益。目前GreatFire仍然依靠世界各地的热心人士和组织的捐款。我们希望减少对这些机构的依赖,并探寻GreatFire.org自给自足的道路。用户只需到翻墙中心就能购买任意一款我们目前在测试的付费工具。GreatFire将作为这些工具在中国的经销商,因此VPN供应商会给予我们每个零售的一部分。用户也不必在中国购买这些翻墙服务。

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