数千个网站在中国遭“一锅端”

Edgecastcdn.net在中国遭到域名服务器缓存污染攻击,导致其下的所有子域名在中国被封。EdgeCast是全球最大的内容分发网络(CDN),为中国成千上万的网站和app提供云服务。

网络监测组织GreatFire使用“依附的自由”方式为网站解封,其假设便是,中国不会封锁通往全球内容发布网络的连接,因为当局很清楚中国融入全球互联网的价值。但该组织此次宣称,中国当局正试图将中国从全球互联网中孤立出来。

在过去数日内, “依附的自由”技术带来了许多“连带破坏”。GreatFire组织收到一些小网站发来的邮件,这些网站弄不清,为何自己网站的内容并不敏感,却遭到防火墙的封锁。

发生了什么?

据GreatFire称,他们于2014年11月13日监测到对EdgeCast的首个污染攻击。EdgeCast于2014年11月14日在其网站上告示,其服务在中国遭到干扰。并于17日发表相关博客称:

从我们的CDN、业界合作伙伴、和我们的用户处得知,愈来愈多的网站、CDNs和网络遭到中国防火墙过滤和封锁。本周,我们目睹了过滤升级,越来越多的网站遭到影响,甚至我们的一个服务器遭到部分封锁······当局没有提供任何理由。

Screen Shot 2014-11-17 at 12.26.20.png

该公司称,已推出相应政策和措施,协助用户应付中国此次的封锁,且表示“这是一直持续的问题”。

受影响的网站(皆为EdgeCast用户)包括:

             索尼移动 的全球网站和中国网站均遭到封锁。

《大西洋月刊》The Atlantic

Drupal (drupal.org)的项目网站被封。全球许多网站都使用Drupal作为后来框架。而中国使用Drupal的网站管理员在升级Drupal或安装插件时,将面临干扰。

Firefox浏览器的插件:Firefox的 addons.cdn.mozilla.net使用EdgeCast的服务器,该浏览器的中国用户将无法安装任何插件。

Gravatar 被许多网站用来显示用户图片。这些图片都使用EdgeCast的服务器,任何使用Gravatar的中国网站都将无法正常显示用户图片。中国用户上这些网站后,将遇到下图中的情况。

其他被封的网站包括speedtest.net 和 deviantart.com。由于不同网站的不同元素(如图片)可能都依赖于EdgeCast,因此无法确切告知哪些网站遭到影响。EdgeCast用户列表  上的所有网站可能都受影响。以下是一些EdgeCast用户的截图。

edgecast.png

原因

中国防火墙试图封锁GreatFire所提供的所有“依附的自由镜像网站”(包括泡泡网),这些网站都被放在全球云服务器上。防火墙无法区分到云服务器上的交通,要封锁这些镜像网站,就必须封锁所有到该内容发布网络的通道。GreatFire的做法,迫使中国当局选择,是要让用户通往不受审查的网站,还是将全球的CDNs一锅端,一锅端的话将给中国经济带来重大的成本。

当局选择封锁EdgeCast的所有服务,成千上万个网站因此遭殃。许多企业将受到影响,很可能造成重大的经济损失。

EdgeCast近期被Verizon购买,而Verizon的董事会中包括许多在中国有巨额投资的公司高级负责人,包括皇家荷兰壳牌、宝洁公司和迪尔公司。

如果当局起初没有预料到封锁EdgeCast所造成的伤害,许多使用EdgeCast的中国公司也现在很可能已经提醒当局了。中国本周正在举行世界互联网大会,封锁EdgeCast很可能会成为热门话题。GreatFire呼吁中国政府立即解封EdgeCast。

Update

EdgeCast removed the status update on its website, but have published a blog post about their current problems in China: 

We have been hearing from our CDN and Monitoring partners throughout the industry and our own customers that more sites, CDNs and networks are being filtered or blocked by the Great Firewall of China. This week we’ve seen the filtering escalate with an increasing number of popular web properties impacted and even one of our many domains being partially blocked… with no rhyme or reason as to why.

At Verizon EdgeCast we have put policies in place to help our customers mitigate the effects of this most recent filtering but expect this to be an ongoing issue for our customers seeking to reach Chinese users (users in China). For any customers who are seeing their delivery impacted, please log in to your EdgeCast portal. Here you will find instructions on your portal home page on how to best mitigate filtering or blocking.

For those of our customers who are frustrated by this, we share your frustration, as does the whole content delivery and hosting industry. Rest assured that we stay committed to work with our global ISP partners and do our best to mitigate the effects of these filtering policies to ensure a clear path to your users and customers in China.

 

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星期二, 5月 23, 2017

Is China establishing cyber sovereignty in the United States?

Last week Twitter came under attack from a DDoS attack orchestrated by the Chinese authorities. While such attacks are not uncommon for websites like Twitter, this one proved unusual. While the Chinese authorities use the Great Firewall to block harmful content from reaching its citizens, it now uses DDoS attacks to take down content that appears on websites beyond its borders. For the Chinese authorities, it is not simply good enough to “protect” the interests of Chinese citizens at home - in their view of cyber sovereignty, any content that might harm China’s interests must be removed, regardless of where the website is located.

And so last week the Chinese authorities determined that Twitter was the target. In particular, the authorities targeted the Twitter account for Guo Wengui (https://twitter.com/KwokMiles), the rebel billionaire who is slowly leaking information about corrupt Chinese government officials via his Twitter account and through his YouTube videos. Guo appeared to ramp up his whistle-blowing efforts last week and the Chinese authorities, in turn, ramped up theirs.

via https://twitter.com/KwokMiles/status/863689935798374401

星期一, 12月 12, 2016

面对中国,Google 还打算终结网络审查吗?

三年前,施密特宣布谷歌将在十年内终结网络审查。当时我在卫报发表文章,批评谷歌的时程太长,并指出他们其实有可能在十天内达成目标。

星期四, 11月 24, 2016

Facebook: Please, not like this

Facebook is considering launching a censorship tool that would enable the world’s biggest social network to “enter” the China market. Sadly, nobody will be surprised by anything that Mark Zuckerberg decides to do in order to enter the China market. With such low expectations, Facebook is poised to usurp Apple as China’s favorite foreign intelligence gathering partner. If the company launches in China using this strategy they will also successfully erase any bargaining power that other media organizations may hold with the Chinese authorities.

星期二, 7月 05, 2016

GreatFire.org 现在开始测试VPN在中国的速度和稳定性

在中国有一个普遍观念,如果你有一个可以使用的VPN,那么你应该保持沉默。就信息自由而言,这种观念的问题在于获取知识竟成了一种秘密。今天,我们推出一个项目,希望能够摧毁这种模型。

我们最新的网站,翻墙中心,目的在于实时提供那些能够在中国使用的翻墙方案的信息和数据。在2011年以来我们就已经开始收集在中国被屏蔽的网站,现在我们也将增加那些可用的VPN和其他翻墙工具。

我们发布翻墙中心主要有四个目的。

我们的首要目标是助长使用翻墙工具的国人的数量。通过分享我们这些工具的信息和数据,我们希望对更广泛的受众展示那些工具时可以使用的。

我们的第二个目标是通过带来工具性能的透明化来提升中国用户的翻墙体验。我们将会测试工具的速度(流行网站的加载速度)和稳定性(流行网站加载成功的程度)。

我们开发速度测试的目的是要真实反映用户的体验。当用户在网站测速时,浏览器在后台会从10个世界上最流行的网站上下载一些资源文件。根据Alexa排名,这些网站分别是Google, Facebook, YouTube, Baidu, Amazon, Yahoo, Wikipedia, QQ, Twitter and Microsoft Live。速度的结果是简单的计算下载文件文件的大小和下载所需的时间。我们同样也会验证下载的文件是否完整。如果文件的内容是错误的或者在40秒内无法完成下载,我们会标记为失败。这个数据被我们用来生成另一个重要指标-稳定性。

其他的速度测试工具仅仅是通过发送数据到它们自己的服务器来测量上传和下载的速度。这种数据无法反应用户的体验,因为正常的浏览器通常会频繁的发送一系列的请求(而不是上传或下载一个大文件)到许多的服务器,而不止是一个。

我们的第二个指标 - 稳定性 - 是其他的服务通常不会测试的。一个健康的互联网连接应该达到100%的稳定性,除非有人在测试中把网线拔了。但是在中国使用翻墙工具却不是这样。任何时候连接都有可能变得不稳定或十分缓慢。根据请求的大小,最终的地点和代理的方式,一些请求有可能会失败。比较服务的稳定性要比比较速度更加重要。

你可以测试任意的翻墙工具,列表之外的也可以。中国的VPN用户也可以测试他们的工具,测试结果也会添加到数据库中。这些数据都将会对所有人开放。实时的在中国测试是非常重要的,因为VPN随时都可能被封锁或解封。我们欢迎任何的关于测试过程的反馈。有技术能力的用户也可以通过审查我们的javascript代码来获悉我们的测试是如何工作的。

我们郑重的邀请翻墙工具的开发者们向我们提供测试过程的反馈。我们的第三个目标是帮助这些开发人员改进他们的产品,让更多的选择适用于中国的顾客。此外,越多的工具可以工作,就意味着中国当局对翻墙的打击就会越难。

中国的用户都知道,在过去的18个月中当局加紧了对翻墙工具的攻击。而翻墙中心将会吹响反击的号角。反其道而行之,让这不再成为秘密。我们要鼓励人们分享翻墙工具可以工作的信息。

我们的第四个目标就是要为GreatFire.org创造收益。目前GreatFire仍然依靠世界各地的热心人士和组织的捐款。我们希望减少对这些机构的依赖,并探寻GreatFire.org自给自足的道路。用户只需到翻墙中心就能购买任意一款我们目前在测试的付费工具。GreatFire将作为这些工具在中国的经销商,因此VPN供应商会给予我们每个零售的一部分。用户也不必在中国购买这些翻墙服务。

星期六, 5月 07, 2016

The New York Times vs. The Chinese Authorities

Could the New York Times be setting the best path forward for news organizations in China?
使用 RSS 订阅我们的博客。

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