谷歌在10天内就能结束互联网审查。

在2013年11月20日,谷歌CEO施密特在华盛顿表示

“我们在10年内结束政府主导的互联网审查。解决方案是加密所有内容。”

他还说道 :

他认为中国人民会使用政府无法控制的技术,比如支持同性者权利的运动

“你不能阻止一个好注意,” 施密特说道 “中国会因此而改变.”

如果我们严肃检查施密特说的话,我们必须观察谷歌事实上在全球审查最为严重的互联网国家-中国的所作所为。答案是令人失望的。在近几年来,谷歌唯一为中国做的只是推出了敏感词提醒功能--但即使这个功能也被移除了。更糟糕的是,谷歌对其他国家推出的防审查的技术,却唯独在中国不推出。在NSA风波之后,谷歌在美国默认启用了加密搜索。但在中国,上千个词语被屏蔽,谷歌却视而不见。

虽然谷歌在中国市场上已经承认失败,但其他网站还能做出贡献。Github是知名代码分享网站,并且只支持加密访问,因此无意间突破了中国互联网管制。当用户用Github来传播翻墙软件以及用此建立禁止GFW研究人员入境的白宫情愿,GFW对此网站进行了封锁。但令人差异的是,Github在几天内就被解封了,并且到目前还可以正常访问。原因是Github对于中国程序员以及经济至关重要。这是依附的自由的第一个著名案例。

Github并不是一个以结束中国互联网审查为目标的网站。我们是这样的网站。在这个星期,我们成功的解封了路透社中国的网站,其网站在11月15日被封锁。我们还解封了中国数字时代的网站,其网站长年被中国封锁。我们也为自己的自由微博建立了镜像。在短时间内,上千来自中国的访问者访问了这些镜像。但我们只是资源有限的互联网激进者。如果有哪个公司能大规模启用这种科技,它就是谷歌。用下述的方法,谷歌在10天内就能结束中国审查,而不是10年:

1. 谷歌首先需要默认对谷歌香港((google.com.hk))启用HTTPS加密。谷歌已经对美国等市场这样做了,但没有中国。默认加密会把中国使用谷歌的网民跳转到 https://www.google.com.hk 加密搜索。加密搜索能放置GFW选择性封锁上千个敏感词

2.虽然我们提供了一个比较全面的被中国封锁网站的列表,谷歌拥有了全球任何国家封锁网站的列表。如果用户尝试从谷歌搜索结果访问一个被封锁的网站,谷歌应该将用户重定向至谷歌建立的镜像网站。

就是这样。这两个简单的方案能让谷歌在月末内结束中国互联网审查。在年底前,谷歌能结束任何地方的互联网审查。这比不作恶好太多了,我们可以一起庆祝。

批评者会说“这样做的话,谷歌可能被完全封锁”。但我们说“谷歌,如果GFW不封锁你,自由胜利了。如果GFW封锁你,反抗互联网审查的力量在中国会增加许多,整个体制会被迫改变。自由也会胜利!”

赢-赢。如果中国政府不敢封锁Github,那么其更加不敢封锁Google了。

我们认为谷歌太重要以至于中国政府不敢完全封锁谷歌。他们尝试过,但一天后就解封了。他们有时候让谷歌服务比如Gmail非常难以使用。但是谷歌的服务对中国境内许多个人已经商业是非常重要的,完全封锁谷歌会有立即以及显著的经济后果

Github是解封的先例。当一月初程序员发现无法使用Github的时候,他们异常愤怒,这并不是审查机构常常遇到的反应。那次,金钱在说话,每一个中国人都知道钱的威力。3天后,估计是判断封锁造成的经济后果,中国解封了Github。

Github是一个对开发者非常重要的服务。但和谷歌相比起来还是差远了。想像以下没有谷歌的世界。没有谷歌搜索,没有Chrome,所有Gmail私人或者工作邮件都无法访问。众多依赖谷歌的网站都无法访问。

我们提出的建议在技术上非常容易。我们早就多次呼吁谷歌默认对搜多加密。但谷歌在斯诺登时间之后才悄悄对美国市场默认启用加密。

用户输入 在中国跳转 在美国跳转
http://www.google.com http://www.google.com.hk https://www.google.com
https://www.google.com http://www.google.com.hk https://www.google.com
http://www.google.com.hk http://www.google.com.hk https://www.google.com.hk
https://www.google.com.hk https://www.google.com.hk https://www.google.com.hk

每当用户在搜索结果中点击网站,而网站被封锁了,谷歌都能更具Google统计来推算出网站在某地区被封锁。谷歌还具有了互联网所有网站的目录。如果某网站被封锁,当用户点击搜索结果时,谷歌可以将用户重定向到没有封锁的镜像网站上,这对谷歌来说技术上非常容易。他们可以在镜像页面上注明“此网页被你所在国家封锁,但我们为保护你的自由将你重定向至镜像网站。” 其实谷歌已经做了一半了。谷歌缓存了大部分网站,并提供缓存给用户。提供缓存的域名不是谷歌主域名,在中国被封锁。谷歌可以将缓存放到主域名下,比如 https://www.google.com/webcache (和国家域名,比如.com.hk)。 这样GFW没有办法在不完全封锁谷歌的情况下封锁网页快照。

这对于谷歌来说时一个大赌局。但中国还没有封锁我们给自由微博路透社中国数字时代的镜像. 这是谷歌动作的时机。

我们用技术来创建镜像网站。但我们创建路透社和中国数字时代网站并没有花很长时间。谷歌在眨眼间就可以完成我们做的事情。这可以让施密特的梦变成显示并且永远结束互联网审查。谷歌可能需要指派一些开发者去完成这些工作,但这是谷歌。他们可能一夜内吃这披萨就能完成了。

如果简单的解决方案,那谷歌为什么不早就这么做了么? 谷歌进入中国市场的步骤是圆滑的。但谷歌退出中国市场的时候,他们的声明是比较尖锐的。谷歌知道它可以结束互联网审查,中国政府除非完全封锁谷歌,没有办法阻止谷歌的做法。为什么谷歌没有这样做呢,尤其是在中国首先出招的时候?

谷歌在中国仍然有3个工作室(北京,上海和广州)。谷歌认为工作室会被迫关闭么?他们是在保护中国员工的安全么(David Drummond 在2010年3月的博文中暗示过)。但是谷歌肯定可以将员工迁移到其他地区,或者为其找到新的工作。难道谷歌是担心员工的人身安全么?

谷歌是担心其在中国的利润么? 可能吧。但其3%的市场份额和谷歌在其他国家的市场是无法相比的。事实上,如果谷歌按照我们说的做的话,谷歌能得到更多的广告费。

肯定已经有谷歌内部员工向谷歌提出过类似的建议。为什么谷歌不肯这样做? 施密特,全球最大互联网公司总裁,认为信息自由是非常重要的。但施密特不应该低估其自己公司能为信息自用做出的贡献。

 

 

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星期四, 11月 30, 2017

关于在中国苹果商店被审查的那674个软件

苹果对中国区的审查行为敞开了大门 - 但这似乎只是冰山一角。

星期二, 5月 23, 2017

Is China establishing cyber sovereignty in the United States?

Last week Twitter came under attack from a DDoS attack orchestrated by the Chinese authorities. While such attacks are not uncommon for websites like Twitter, this one proved unusual. While the Chinese authorities use the Great Firewall to block harmful content from reaching its citizens, it now uses DDoS attacks to take down content that appears on websites beyond its borders. For the Chinese authorities, it is not simply good enough to “protect” the interests of Chinese citizens at home - in their view of cyber sovereignty, any content that might harm China’s interests must be removed, regardless of where the website is located.

And so last week the Chinese authorities determined that Twitter was the target. In particular, the authorities targeted the Twitter account for Guo Wengui (https://twitter.com/KwokMiles), the rebel billionaire who is slowly leaking information about corrupt Chinese government officials via his Twitter account and through his YouTube videos. Guo appeared to ramp up his whistle-blowing efforts last week and the Chinese authorities, in turn, ramped up theirs.

via https://twitter.com/KwokMiles/status/863689935798374401

星期一, 12月 12, 2016

China is the obstacle to Google’s plan to end internet censorship

It’s been three years since Eric Schmidt proclaimed that Google would chart a course to ending online censorship within ten years. Now is a great time to check on Google’s progress, reassess the landscape, benchmark Google’s efforts against others who share the same goal, postulate on the China strategy and offer suggestions on how they might effectively move forward.

flowers on google china plaque

Flowers left outside Google China’s headquarters after its announcement it might leave the country in 2010. Photo: Wikicommons.

What has Google accomplished since November 2013?

The first thing they have accomplished is an entire rebranding of both Google (now Alphabet) and Google Ideas (now Jigsaw). Throughout this blog post, reference is made to both new and old company names.

Google has started to develop two main tools which they believe can help in the fight against censorship. Jigsaw’s DDoS protection service, Project Shield, is effectively preventing censorship-inspired DDoS attacks and recently helped to repel an attack on Brian Krebs’ blog. The service is similar to other anti-DDoS services developed by internet freedom champions and for-profit services like Cloudflare.

星期四, 11月 24, 2016

Facebook: Please, not like this

Facebook is considering launching a censorship tool that would enable the world’s biggest social network to “enter” the China market. Sadly, nobody will be surprised by anything that Mark Zuckerberg decides to do in order to enter the China market. With such low expectations, Facebook is poised to usurp Apple as China’s favorite foreign intelligence gathering partner. If the company launches in China using this strategy they will also successfully erase any bargaining power that other media organizations may hold with the Chinese authorities.

星期二, 7月 05, 2016

GreatFire.org 现在开始测试VPN在中国的速度和稳定性

在中国有一个普遍观念,如果你有一个可以使用的VPN,那么你应该保持沉默。就信息自由而言,这种观念的问题在于获取知识竟成了一种秘密。今天,我们推出一个项目,希望能够摧毁这种模型。

我们最新的网站,翻墙中心,目的在于实时提供那些能够在中国使用的翻墙方案的信息和数据。在2011年以来我们就已经开始收集在中国被屏蔽的网站,现在我们也将增加那些可用的VPN和其他翻墙工具。

我们发布翻墙中心主要有四个目的。

我们的首要目标是助长使用翻墙工具的国人的数量。通过分享我们这些工具的信息和数据,我们希望对更广泛的受众展示那些工具时可以使用的。

我们的第二个目标是通过带来工具性能的透明化来提升中国用户的翻墙体验。我们将会测试工具的速度(流行网站的加载速度)和稳定性(流行网站加载成功的程度)。

我们开发速度测试的目的是要真实反映用户的体验。当用户在网站测速时,浏览器在后台会从10个世界上最流行的网站上下载一些资源文件。根据Alexa排名,这些网站分别是Google, Facebook, YouTube, Baidu, Amazon, Yahoo, Wikipedia, QQ, Twitter and Microsoft Live。速度的结果是简单的计算下载文件文件的大小和下载所需的时间。我们同样也会验证下载的文件是否完整。如果文件的内容是错误的或者在40秒内无法完成下载,我们会标记为失败。这个数据被我们用来生成另一个重要指标-稳定性。

其他的速度测试工具仅仅是通过发送数据到它们自己的服务器来测量上传和下载的速度。这种数据无法反应用户的体验,因为正常的浏览器通常会频繁的发送一系列的请求(而不是上传或下载一个大文件)到许多的服务器,而不止是一个。

我们的第二个指标 - 稳定性 - 是其他的服务通常不会测试的。一个健康的互联网连接应该达到100%的稳定性,除非有人在测试中把网线拔了。但是在中国使用翻墙工具却不是这样。任何时候连接都有可能变得不稳定或十分缓慢。根据请求的大小,最终的地点和代理的方式,一些请求有可能会失败。比较服务的稳定性要比比较速度更加重要。

你可以测试任意的翻墙工具,列表之外的也可以。中国的VPN用户也可以测试他们的工具,测试结果也会添加到数据库中。这些数据都将会对所有人开放。实时的在中国测试是非常重要的,因为VPN随时都可能被封锁或解封。我们欢迎任何的关于测试过程的反馈。有技术能力的用户也可以通过审查我们的javascript代码来获悉我们的测试是如何工作的。

我们郑重的邀请翻墙工具的开发者们向我们提供测试过程的反馈。我们的第三个目标是帮助这些开发人员改进他们的产品,让更多的选择适用于中国的顾客。此外,越多的工具可以工作,就意味着中国当局对翻墙的打击就会越难。

中国的用户都知道,在过去的18个月中当局加紧了对翻墙工具的攻击。而翻墙中心将会吹响反击的号角。反其道而行之,让这不再成为秘密。我们要鼓励人们分享翻墙工具可以工作的信息。

我们的第四个目标就是要为GreatFire.org创造收益。目前GreatFire仍然依靠世界各地的热心人士和组织的捐款。我们希望减少对这些机构的依赖,并探寻GreatFire.org自给自足的道路。用户只需到翻墙中心就能购买任意一款我们目前在测试的付费工具。GreatFire将作为这些工具在中国的经销商,因此VPN供应商会给予我们每个零售的一部分。用户也不必在中国购买这些翻墙服务。

使用 RSS 订阅我们的博客。

评论

But surely it's trivial for the chinese authorities to just block *.google.* altogether and suddenly you don't even have the option for using google or any of it's services.

This all nothing more than PR. Microsoft and friends can solve censorship in half a day. All they need to do is roll out an update that enable Opportunistic IPSec to all Windows users and server.

This function is already built, the amount of work Microsoft has to do is minimal. It's just a matter of making sure every (or most users and services) enable it.

Of course this will never happen because it wouldn't just mess with the Chinese Great Firewall, it would also interfere with the NSA's work.

The Chinese authorities have made Google unattractive enough that it only has a 3% market share in China. Youtube is completely inaccessible in China. How "crucial" can it be?

Putting the cache under google.com is a security risk for Google because of the cached content will operate under same (sub)domain rules. Just saying; there's no need to get so technical in the article.

Surely google china will be closed entirely. What a stupid idea! You don't Know China.

When I go to Google China, it's https by default. So did they change something in the past few days?

"But surely it's trivial for the chinese authorities to just block *.google.* altogether and suddenly you don't even have the option for using google or any of it's services."

Bingo. As I read this article, I was waiting for this question to be addressed, and it was never really answered to my satisfaction.

Saying "Google is too big and important to block" overlooks two key points:

1) the Party treats control over information as an issue of existential importance, and;

2) there are a number of viable "second-best" options for the Chinese internet user performing a search. Many Chinese friends of mine actually prefer Baidu.

So please explain to me: who is the constituency who would raise a hue and cry such that the Party--confronted with what it would perceive as an existential threat to its existence--would back down and unblock Google's main search page?

I am by no means arguing against efforts to circumvent, damage, or destroy the GFW. I find its existence appalling. But I'm also disturbed by articles such as this one, which present facile solutions to complicated problems, employing lazy logic and unsupported assumptions to cast companies such as Google (which seems at least to be TRYING to do the right thing) in the ill-fitting role of bad guy; or if not bad guy, then at least an enabler.

Was this article run by the advisory board? Given the level of subtlety and understanding on display in Rebecca MacKinnon's writings on the Chinese internet, I find it hard to believe that she would endorse this article's conclusions wholesale.

"existential threat to its existence"

redundancy win is redundant

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